Grana Padano (GP) is a Protected Designation of Origin cheese made with raw milk and natural whey culture (NWC) that is characterised by a long ripening period. In this study, six GP productions were considered in order to evaluate the trend of microbial dynamics and compare lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population levels in cheeses during the entire cheese-making process. To reach this goal, for each GP production, samples of vat raw milk, NWC and cheeses at 48 h, 2, 6, 9 and 13 months were subjected to plate counts and direct counts by fluorescence microscopy, as well as amplicon length heterogeneity- PCR (LH-PCR). Statistical analysis was applied to the results and ecological indices were estimated. It was demonstrated that the LAB able to grow in the cheese-environment conditions could arise from both raw milk and NWC. Starter lactobacilli (SLAB) from NWC were the main species present during acidification, and non-starter LAB (NSLAB), mainly from milk but also from NWC, were able to grow after brining and they dominated during ripening. The peak areas of LH-PCR profiles were used to determine ecological indices during manufacture and ripening. Among cheese ecosystems with different ageing times, diversity, Evenness and Richness were different, with highest bacterial growth and diversity occurring in cheese ripening at 2 months. At this time point, which seemed to be a crucial moment for GP microbial evolution, cell lysis of both SLAB and NSLAB was also observed. Sampling modality and statistical analysis gave greater significance to the results used to describe the microbiological characteristics of a cheese recognised worldwide.

Variability of lactic acid production, chemical and microbiological characteristics in 24-hour Parmigiano Reggiano cheese / Santarelli, Marcela; Bottari, Benedetta; Malacarne, Massimo; Lazzi, Camilla; Sforza, Stefano; Summer, Andrea; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica. - In: DAIRY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. - ISSN 1958-5586. - 93:6(2013), pp. 605-621. [10.1007/s13594-013-0135-4]

Variability of lactic acid production, chemical and microbiological characteristics in 24-hour Parmigiano Reggiano cheese

SANTARELLI, Marcela;BOTTARI, Benedetta;MALACARNE, Massimo;LAZZI, Camilla;SFORZA, Stefano;SUMMER, Andrea;NEVIANI, Erasmo;GATTI, Monica
2013-01-01

Abstract

Grana Padano (GP) is a Protected Designation of Origin cheese made with raw milk and natural whey culture (NWC) that is characterised by a long ripening period. In this study, six GP productions were considered in order to evaluate the trend of microbial dynamics and compare lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population levels in cheeses during the entire cheese-making process. To reach this goal, for each GP production, samples of vat raw milk, NWC and cheeses at 48 h, 2, 6, 9 and 13 months were subjected to plate counts and direct counts by fluorescence microscopy, as well as amplicon length heterogeneity- PCR (LH-PCR). Statistical analysis was applied to the results and ecological indices were estimated. It was demonstrated that the LAB able to grow in the cheese-environment conditions could arise from both raw milk and NWC. Starter lactobacilli (SLAB) from NWC were the main species present during acidification, and non-starter LAB (NSLAB), mainly from milk but also from NWC, were able to grow after brining and they dominated during ripening. The peak areas of LH-PCR profiles were used to determine ecological indices during manufacture and ripening. Among cheese ecosystems with different ageing times, diversity, Evenness and Richness were different, with highest bacterial growth and diversity occurring in cheese ripening at 2 months. At this time point, which seemed to be a crucial moment for GP microbial evolution, cell lysis of both SLAB and NSLAB was also observed. Sampling modality and statistical analysis gave greater significance to the results used to describe the microbiological characteristics of a cheese recognised worldwide.
2013
Variability of lactic acid production, chemical and microbiological characteristics in 24-hour Parmigiano Reggiano cheese / Santarelli, Marcela; Bottari, Benedetta; Malacarne, Massimo; Lazzi, Camilla; Sforza, Stefano; Summer, Andrea; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica. - In: DAIRY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. - ISSN 1958-5586. - 93:6(2013), pp. 605-621. [10.1007/s13594-013-0135-4]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2632857
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