Background and aims: Post-prandial glycemic response (PPGR) depends on the intrinsic characteristic of the carbohydrate-rich foods as well as on the amount and type of other nutrients. This study aimed to explore whether the addition of condiments can affect the difference in PPGR between a low and a medium-high Glycemic Index (GI) food. Methods and results: Spaghetti (S) and rice ® were consumed plain and after adding tomato sauce and extra virgin olive oil (TEVOO), or pesto sauce (P). The GI of R (63 ± 3) was statistically higher than that of S (44 ± 7) (p = 0.003). The Incremental Area Under the Curve (IAUC) for R was significantly greater than S (124.2 ± 12.1 and 82.1 ± 12.9 mmol∗min/L respectively) (p = 0.016) for blood glucose but not for insulin (1192.6 ± 183.6 and 905.2 ± 208.9 mU∗min/L, respectively) (p = 0.076). There were no significant differences after the addition of either TEVOO or P. The postprandial peaks of blood glucose and insulin for R (6.7 ± 0.3 mmol/L and 36.4 ± 4.9 mU/L, respectively) were significantly higher compared to S (6.0 ± 0.2 mmol/L and 26.7 ± 3.6 mU/L, respectively) (p = 0.033 and p = 0.025). The postprandial peak for insulin remained significantly higher with P (36.8 ± 3.7 and 28.6 ± 2.9 mU/L for R + P and S + P, p = 0.045) but not with EVOO (p = 0.963). Postprandial peaks for blood glucose were not significantly different with condiment. Conclusions: The differences in PPGR were significant between spaghetti and rice consumed plain, they reduced or disappeared with fat adding, depending on the type of condiment used. REGISTRATION NUMBER: (www.clinicaltrial.gov):NCT03104712.
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