The demand for fish and seafood is growing worldwide. Meanwhile, problems related to the integrity and safety of the fishery sector are increasing, leading legislators, producers, and consumers to search for ways to effectively protect themselves from fraud and health hazards related to fish consumption. What is urgently required now is the availability of reliable, truthful, and reproducible methods assuring the correspondence between the real nature of the product and label declarations accompanying the same product during its market life. The evaluation of the inorganic composition of fish and seafood appears to be one of the most promising strategies to be exploited in the near future to assist routine and official monitoring operations along the supply chain. The present review article focuses on exploring the latest scientific achievements of using the multi-elemental composition of fish and seafood as an imprint of their authenticity and traceability, especially with regards to the geographical origin. The scientific literature of the last 10 years focusing on the analytical determination and statistical elaboration of elemental data (alone or in combination with methodologies targeting other compounds) to verify the identity of fishery products is summarized and discussed.
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