Background: Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases in a dose-dependent manner. Chronic intake results in the transient appearance of bioactive phenolic metabolites in the circulatory system. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of different patterns of coffee consumption on plasma and urinary profiles of phenolic metabolites. Objectives: Plasma and urinary phenolic metabolites were investigated following regular consumption of different daily dosages of coffee or cocoa-based products containing coffee (CBPCC) under a real-life setting. Methods: A repeated-dose, randomized, crossover human intervention was conducted with 21 healthy volunteers. For 1 mo, participants consumed 1) 1 cup of coffee (1C), 2) 3 cups of coffee (3C), or 3) 1 cup of coffee + 2 CBPCC twice daily (PC). Plasma and urine samples were collected over a 24-h period after each treatment. The nutrikinetics and urinary excretion of native, human phase II, and colonic metabolites were assessed. Results: A total of 51 (poly)phenolic metabolites were quantified, with 41 metabolites being strictly related to coffee consumption. Significant differences were observed among treatments for most of the metabolites. The metabolites present in the highest amounts were the hydroxycinnamate, phenylpropanoic acid, benzaldehyde, and benzene classes, along with (-)-epicatechin and phenyl-γ-valerolactone derivatives after PC treatment. Daily average concentrations did not exceed 200 nmol/L and were <100 nmol/L for most of the metabolites. The excretion of coffee phenolics ranged from 40% to 70% of intake, indicating that coffee hydroxycinnamates are notably more bioavailable than previously thought. Interindividual variability was also investigated. Conclusions: The absorption, metabolism, nutrikinetic profile, and bioavailability of coffee phenolics were established for different patterns of coffee consumption under real-life conditions. This work provides the basis for further nutritional epidemiology research and mode-of-Action cell-based studies. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03166540.
Effect of different patterns of consumption of coffee and a cocoa-based product containing coffee on the nutrikinetics and urinary excretion of phenolic compounds / Mena, P.; Bresciani, L.; Tassotti, M.; Rosi, A.; Martini, D.; Antonini, M.; Cas, A. D.; Bonadonna, R.; Brighenti, F.; Del Rio, D.. - In: THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. - ISSN 0002-9165. - 114:6(2021), pp. 2107-2118. [10.1093/ajcn/nqab299]
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