The analysis of bacterial genomes is a potent tool to investigate the distribution of specific traits related to the ability of surviving in particular environments. Among the traits associated with the adaptation to hostile conditions, toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems have recently gained attention in lactic acid bacteria. In this work, genome sequences of Lacticaseibacillus strains of dairy origin were compared, focusing on the distribution of type I TA systems homologous to Lpt/RNAII and of the most common type II TA systems. A high number of TA systems have been identified spread in all the analyzed strains, with type I TA systems mainly located on plasmid DNA. The type II TA systems identified in these strains highlight the diversity of encoded toxins and antitoxins and their organization. This study opens future perspectives on the use of genomic data as a resource for the study of TA systems distribution and prevalence in microorganisms of industrial relevance.
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