Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFAs) are the most abundant cyclic fatty acids in microorganisms with unknown role(s) regarding their dietary relevance and biological effects in humans. This work was aimed to draw up a list of CPFAs-containing foods for estimating their dietary intake in the Italian population to provide a basis for evaluating their nutritional relevance and potential health-related effects. The CPFAs content of more than 500 food items was investigated and a preliminary dietary intake was assessed (12.0 ± 6.0 mg/day), based on the data reported by the Italian National Food Consumption Survey INRAN-SCAI 2005–06. CPFAs should be considered of dietary relevance in view of their potential physiological activity in humans and their presence in significant amounts in dairy products, as Grana Padano cheese (9.0–30.0 mg/100 g), and in bovine meat (0.7–4.0 mg/100 g). Future studies should elucidate whether this uncommon class of fatty acids has a biological role in human health.
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