A physicochemical assessment was carried out to discriminate the geographical origin of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) following the regulation relative to the protection of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs (Article 4, paragraph 2 of Regulation (EC) No. 510/2006). One-way ANOVA results revealed that all the physical features were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected by the geographical origin, while chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b and two fatty acids [heptadecenoic acid (C17:1) and behenic (C22)] did not show significant (p > 0.05) differences among the different geographical origins. However, the remaining fatty acids showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences between pistachios coming from different countries (Iran, USA, Turkey, Syria, Kyrgyzstan and Italy) as well as between pistachios coming from two Italian locations (Bronte and Agrigento). Principal component analysis enabled to highlight differences among pistachios from different countries, and partial least squares enabled a better discrimination among pistachios from well-defined geographic areas, such as Bronte pistachios. Therefore, combining physicochemical features can be a valid tool for geographical origin discrimination of pistachio.
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