Scope: This work aimed at investigating absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of phenoliccompounds after consumption of wholegrain bread or bread enriched with an aleurone fraction.Methods and results: Two commercially available breads were consumed by 15 participants onthree occasions and matched for either the amount of ferulic acid in the bread or the amount ofbread consumed. Urine was collected for 48 h from all the volunteers for phenolic metabolitequantiﬁcation. Blood samples were collected for 24 h following bread consumption in ﬁve par-ticipants. A total of 12 and 4 phenolic metabolites were quantiﬁed in urine and plasma samples,respectively. Metabolites were sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates of phenolic acids, andhigh concentrations of ferulic acid-4’-O-sulfate, dihydroferulic acid-4’-O-sulfate, and dihydro-ferulic acid-O-glucuronide were observed. The bioavailability of ferulic acid was signiﬁcantlyhigher from the aleurone-enriched bread when all ferulic acid metabolites were accounted for.Conclusions: The study shows that low amounts of aleurone-enriched bread resulted in equiv-alent plasma levels of ferulic acid as wholegrain bread. This could suggest that, if the absorbedphenolic metabolites after wholegrain product intake exert health beneﬁts, equal levels couldbe reached through the consumption of lower doses of reﬁned products enriched in aleuronefraction.
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