Hepatoblastoma (HB) and pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are rare primary malignant liver cancers in children and young adults. HB is the most common and accounts for about 70 % cases; it is usually diagnosed during the first 3 years of life. Instead, pediatric HCC is uncommon, and it is associated with a poor prognosis. Overall, the prognosis of pediatric HCC is dismal with 5-year event-free survival of <30 % as compared to >80 % for HB.Surgery approaches, either resection or transplant, remain the best chance for the cure of pediatric HCC. However, chemotherapy can be helpful as an adjuvant or neoadjuvant treatment. International groups have done trials in pediatric HCC with a chemotherapy regimen, based on cisplatin and doxorubicin (PLADO) as for HB, but the efficacy is limited. Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, following positive results in adults and in a pilot study in children, is now tested in conjunction with chemotherapy in the PHITT phase III clinical trial. Some studies have been exploring the genetic profiles of patients to find biological hallmarks that determine the aggressiveness of pediatric HCC. Pathways involved in growth and differentiation are dysregulated and as demonstrated in HB and adult HCC, an important role of the Wnt/CTNNB1 pathway in the pathogenesis of pediatric HCC is also emerging. An extended molecular analysis of tumor samples could give information about pathways as possible targets of biological and immunotherapeutic agents bringing new pharmacological options for the treatment of pediatric HCC.

State of the art and perspectives in pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma / Digiacomo, Graziana; Serra, Roberta Pia; Turrini, Elena; Tiri, Alessandra; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Alfieri, Roberta; Bertolini, Patrizia. - In: BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY. - ISSN 0006-2952. - 207:(2023), p. 115373. [10.1016/j.bcp.2022.115373]

State of the art and perspectives in pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma

Digiacomo, Graziana;Serra, Roberta Pia;Turrini, Elena;Tiri, Alessandra;Cavazzoni, Andrea;Alfieri, Roberta
;
Bertolini, Patrizia
2023-01-01

Abstract

Hepatoblastoma (HB) and pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are rare primary malignant liver cancers in children and young adults. HB is the most common and accounts for about 70 % cases; it is usually diagnosed during the first 3 years of life. Instead, pediatric HCC is uncommon, and it is associated with a poor prognosis. Overall, the prognosis of pediatric HCC is dismal with 5-year event-free survival of <30 % as compared to >80 % for HB.Surgery approaches, either resection or transplant, remain the best chance for the cure of pediatric HCC. However, chemotherapy can be helpful as an adjuvant or neoadjuvant treatment. International groups have done trials in pediatric HCC with a chemotherapy regimen, based on cisplatin and doxorubicin (PLADO) as for HB, but the efficacy is limited. Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, following positive results in adults and in a pilot study in children, is now tested in conjunction with chemotherapy in the PHITT phase III clinical trial. Some studies have been exploring the genetic profiles of patients to find biological hallmarks that determine the aggressiveness of pediatric HCC. Pathways involved in growth and differentiation are dysregulated and as demonstrated in HB and adult HCC, an important role of the Wnt/CTNNB1 pathway in the pathogenesis of pediatric HCC is also emerging. An extended molecular analysis of tumor samples could give information about pathways as possible targets of biological and immunotherapeutic agents bringing new pharmacological options for the treatment of pediatric HCC.
2023
State of the art and perspectives in pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma / Digiacomo, Graziana; Serra, Roberta Pia; Turrini, Elena; Tiri, Alessandra; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Alfieri, Roberta; Bertolini, Patrizia. - In: BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY. - ISSN 0006-2952. - 207:(2023), p. 115373. [10.1016/j.bcp.2022.115373]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2936633
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