This paper focuses on the problem of grasp stability and grasp quality analysis. An elegant way to evaluate the stability of a grasp is to model its wrench space. However, classical grasp quality measures suffer from several disadvantages, the main drawback being that they are not task related. Indeed, constructive approaches for approximating the wrench space including also task information have been rarely considered. This work presents an effective method for task-oriented grasp quality evaluation based on a novel grasp quality measure. We address the general case of multifingered grasps with point contacts with friction. The proposed approach is based on the concept of programming by demonstration and interactive teaching, wherein an expert user provides in a teaching phase a set of exemplar grasps appropriate for the task. Following this phase, a representation of task-related grasps is built. During task planning and execution, a grasp could be either submitted interactively for evaluation by a non-expert user or synthesized by an automatic planning system. Grasp quality is then assessed based on the proposed measure, which takes into account grasp stability along with its suitability for the task. To enable real-time evaluation of grasps, a fast algorithm for computing an approximation of the quality measure is also proposed. Finally, a local grasp optimization technique is described which can amend uncertainties arising in supplied grasps by non-expert users or assist in planning more valuable grasps in the neighborhood of candidate ones. The paper reports experiments performed in virtual reality with both an anthropomorphic virtual hand and a three-fingered robot hand. These experiments suggest the effectiveness and task relevance of the proposed grasp quality measure.
Interactive teaching of task-oriented robot grasps / Aleotti, Jacopo; Caselli, Stefano. - In: ROBOTICS AND AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS. - ISSN 0921-8890. - 58(2010), pp. 539-550. [10.1016/j.robot.2010.01.004]