The Programming by Demonstration paradigm promises to reduce the complexity of robot programming. Its aim is to let robot systems learn new behaviors from a human operator demonstration. In this paper, we argue that while providing demonstrations in the real environment enables teaching of general tasks, for tasks whose essential features are known a priori demonstrating in a virtual environment may improve efﬁciency and reduce trainer’s fatigue. We next describe a prototype system supporting Programming by Demonstration in a virtual environment and we report results obtained exploiting simple virtual tactile ﬁxtures in pick-and-place tasks.
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