Most eukaryotes possess a mitochondrial genome, called mtDNA. In animals and fungi, the replication of mtDNA is entrusted by the DNA polymerase ?, or Pol ?. The yeast Pol ? is composed only of a catalytic subunit encoded by MIP1. In humans, Pol ? is a heterotrimer composed of a catalytic subunit homolog to Mip1, encoded by POLG, and two accessory subunits. In the last 25 years, more than 300 pathological mutations in POLG have been identified as the cause of several mitochondrial diseases, called POLG-related disorders, which are characterized by multiple mtDNA deletions and/or depletion in affected tissues. In this review, at first, we summarize the biochemical properties of yeast Mip1, and how mutations, especially those introduced recently in the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the enzyme, affect the in vitro activity of the enzyme and the in vivo phenotype connected to the mtDNA stability and to the mtDNA extended and point mutability. Then, we focus on the use of yeast harboring Mip1 mutations equivalent to the human ones to confirm their pathogenicity, identify the phenotypic defects caused by these mutations, and find both mechanisms and molecular compounds able to rescue the detrimental phenotype. A closing chapter will be dedicated to other polymerases found in yeast mitochondria, namely Pol ?, Rev1 and Pol ?, and to their genetic interactions with Mip1 necessary to maintain mtDNA stability and to avoid the accumulation of spontaneous or induced point mutations.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial DNA polymerase and its contribution to the knowledge about human POLG-related disorders / Gilea, Alexandru Ionut; Magistrati, Martina; Notaroberto, Ilenia; Tiso, Natascia; Dallabona, Cristina; Baruffini, Enrico. - In: IUBMB LIFE. - ISSN 1521-6551. - 75:12(2023), pp. 983-1002. [10.1002/iub.2770]