Simple Summary: Despite crucial scientific advances, Glioblastoma (GB) remains a fatal disease with limited therapeutic options and a lack of suitable biomarkers. The unveiled competence of the brain immune system together with the breakthrough advent of immunotherapy has shifted the present translational research on GB towards an immune-focused perspective. Several clinical trials targeting the immunosuppressive GB background are ongoing. So far, results are inconclusive, underpinning our partial understanding of the complex cancer-immune interplay in brain tumors. High throughput Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging has shown the potential to decipher GB heterogeneity, including pathologic and genomic clues. However, whether distinct GB immune contextures can be deciphered at an imaging scale is still elusive, leaving unattained the non-invasive achievement of prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Along these lines, we integrated genetic, immunopathologic and imaging features in a series of GB patients. Our results suggest that multiparametric approaches might offer new efficient risk stratification models, opening the possibility to intercept the critical events implicated in the dismal prognosis of GB. Abstract: Background: The aim of the present study was to dissect the clinical outcome of GB patients through the integration of molecular, immunophenotypic and MR imaging features. Methods: We enrolled 57 histologically proven and molecularly tested GB patients (5.3% IDH-1 mutant). Two- Dimensional Free ROI on the Biggest Enhancing Tumoral Diameter (TDFRBETD) acquired by MRI sequences were used to perform a manual evaluation of multiple quantitative variables, among which we selected: SD Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR), SD and mean Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC). Characterization of the Tumor Immune Microenvironment (TIME) involved the immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1, and number and distribution of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) and CD163+ Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs), focusing on immune-vascular localization. Genetic, MR imaging and TIME descriptors were correlated with overall survival (OS). Results: MGMT methylation was associated with a significantly prolonged OS (median OS = 20 months), while no impact of p53 and EGFR status was apparent. GB cases with high mean ADC at MRI, indicative of low cellularity and soft consistency, exhibited increased OS (median OS = 24 months). PD-L1 and the overall number of TILs and CD163+TAMs had a marginal impact on patient outcome. Conversely, the density of vascular-associated (V) CD4+ lymphocytes emerged as the most significant prognostic factor (median OS = 23 months in V-CD4high vs. 13 months in V-CD4low, p = 0.015). High V-CD4+TILs also characterized TIME of MGMTmeth GB, while p53mut appeared to condition a desert immune background. When individual genetic (MGMTunmeth), MR imaging (mean ADClow) and TIME (V-CD4+TILslow) negative predictors were combined, median OS was 21 months (95% CI, 0–47.37) in patients displaying 0–1 risk factor and 13 months (95% CI 7.22–19.22) in the presence of 2–3 risk factors (p = 0.010, HR = 3.39, 95% CI 1.26–9.09). Conclusion: Interlacing MRI–immune–genetic features may provide highly significant risk-stratification models in GB patients.

Integrated MRI–Immune–Genomic Features Enclose a Risk Stratification Model in Patients Affected by Glioblastoma / Mazzaschi, Giulia; Olivari, Alessandro; Pavarani, Antonio; Lagrasta, Costanza Anna Maria; Frati, Caterina; Madeddu, Denise; Lorusso, Bruno; Dallasta, Silvia; Tommasi, Chiara; Musolino, Antonino; Tiseo, Marcello; Michiara, Maria; Quaini, Federico; Crafa, Pellegrino. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 14:13(2022), p. 3249. [10.3390/cancers14133249]

Integrated MRI–Immune–Genomic Features Enclose a Risk Stratification Model in Patients Affected by Glioblastoma

Giulia Mazzaschi
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Alessandro Olivari
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Antonio Pavarani
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Costanza Anna Maria Lagrasta
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Caterina Frati
Methodology
;
Denise Madeddu
Methodology
;
Bruno Lorusso
Methodology
;
Chiara Tommasi
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Antonino Musolino
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Marcello Tiseo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Federico Quaini
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Pellegrino Crafa
Writing – Review & Editing
2022-01-01

Abstract

Simple Summary: Despite crucial scientific advances, Glioblastoma (GB) remains a fatal disease with limited therapeutic options and a lack of suitable biomarkers. The unveiled competence of the brain immune system together with the breakthrough advent of immunotherapy has shifted the present translational research on GB towards an immune-focused perspective. Several clinical trials targeting the immunosuppressive GB background are ongoing. So far, results are inconclusive, underpinning our partial understanding of the complex cancer-immune interplay in brain tumors. High throughput Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging has shown the potential to decipher GB heterogeneity, including pathologic and genomic clues. However, whether distinct GB immune contextures can be deciphered at an imaging scale is still elusive, leaving unattained the non-invasive achievement of prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Along these lines, we integrated genetic, immunopathologic and imaging features in a series of GB patients. Our results suggest that multiparametric approaches might offer new efficient risk stratification models, opening the possibility to intercept the critical events implicated in the dismal prognosis of GB. Abstract: Background: The aim of the present study was to dissect the clinical outcome of GB patients through the integration of molecular, immunophenotypic and MR imaging features. Methods: We enrolled 57 histologically proven and molecularly tested GB patients (5.3% IDH-1 mutant). Two- Dimensional Free ROI on the Biggest Enhancing Tumoral Diameter (TDFRBETD) acquired by MRI sequences were used to perform a manual evaluation of multiple quantitative variables, among which we selected: SD Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR), SD and mean Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC). Characterization of the Tumor Immune Microenvironment (TIME) involved the immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1, and number and distribution of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) and CD163+ Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs), focusing on immune-vascular localization. Genetic, MR imaging and TIME descriptors were correlated with overall survival (OS). Results: MGMT methylation was associated with a significantly prolonged OS (median OS = 20 months), while no impact of p53 and EGFR status was apparent. GB cases with high mean ADC at MRI, indicative of low cellularity and soft consistency, exhibited increased OS (median OS = 24 months). PD-L1 and the overall number of TILs and CD163+TAMs had a marginal impact on patient outcome. Conversely, the density of vascular-associated (V) CD4+ lymphocytes emerged as the most significant prognostic factor (median OS = 23 months in V-CD4high vs. 13 months in V-CD4low, p = 0.015). High V-CD4+TILs also characterized TIME of MGMTmeth GB, while p53mut appeared to condition a desert immune background. When individual genetic (MGMTunmeth), MR imaging (mean ADClow) and TIME (V-CD4+TILslow) negative predictors were combined, median OS was 21 months (95% CI, 0–47.37) in patients displaying 0–1 risk factor and 13 months (95% CI 7.22–19.22) in the presence of 2–3 risk factors (p = 0.010, HR = 3.39, 95% CI 1.26–9.09). Conclusion: Interlacing MRI–immune–genetic features may provide highly significant risk-stratification models in GB patients.
Integrated MRI–Immune–Genomic Features Enclose a Risk Stratification Model in Patients Affected by Glioblastoma / Mazzaschi, Giulia; Olivari, Alessandro; Pavarani, Antonio; Lagrasta, Costanza Anna Maria; Frati, Caterina; Madeddu, Denise; Lorusso, Bruno; Dallasta, Silvia; Tommasi, Chiara; Musolino, Antonino; Tiseo, Marcello; Michiara, Maria; Quaini, Federico; Crafa, Pellegrino. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 14:13(2022), p. 3249. [10.3390/cancers14133249]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2926459
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