Hemoglobin (Hb) plays its vital role through structural and functional properties evolutionarily optimized to work within red blood cells, i.e., the tetrameric assembly, well-defined oxygen affinity, positive cooperativity, and heterotropic allosteric regulation by protons, chloride and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. Outside red blood cells, the Hb tetramer dissociates into dimers, which exhibit high oxygen affinity and neither cooperativity nor allosteric regulation. They are prone to extravasate, thus scavenging endothelial NO and causing hypertension, and cause nephrotoxicity. In addition, they are more prone to autoxidation, generating radicals. The need to overcome the adverse effects associated with cell-free Hb has always been a major hurdle in the development of substitutes of allogeneic blood transfusions for all clinical situations where blood is unavailable or cannot be used due to, for example, religious objections. This class of therapeutics, indicated as hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), is formed by genetically and/or chemically modified Hbs. Many efforts were devoted to the exploitation of the wealth of biochemical and biophysical information available on Hb structure, function, and dynamics to design safe HBOCs, overcoming the negative effects of free plasma Hb. Unfortunately, so far, no HBOC has been approved by FDA and EMA, except for compassionate use. However, the unmet clinical needs that triggered intensive investigations more than fifty years ago are still awaiting an answer. Recently, HBOCs “repositioning” has led to their successful application in organ perfusion fluids.

From hemoglobin allostery to hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers / Faggiano, S.; Ronda, L.; Bruno, S.; Abbruzzetti, S.; Viappiani, C.; Bettati, S.; Mozzarelli, A.. - In: MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF MEDICINE. - ISSN 0098-2997. - 84:(2022), p. 101050.101050. [10.1016/j.mam.2021.101050]

From hemoglobin allostery to hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers

Faggiano S.;Ronda L.;Bruno S.;Abbruzzetti S.;Viappiani C.;Bettati S.;Mozzarelli A.
2022

Abstract

Hemoglobin (Hb) plays its vital role through structural and functional properties evolutionarily optimized to work within red blood cells, i.e., the tetrameric assembly, well-defined oxygen affinity, positive cooperativity, and heterotropic allosteric regulation by protons, chloride and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. Outside red blood cells, the Hb tetramer dissociates into dimers, which exhibit high oxygen affinity and neither cooperativity nor allosteric regulation. They are prone to extravasate, thus scavenging endothelial NO and causing hypertension, and cause nephrotoxicity. In addition, they are more prone to autoxidation, generating radicals. The need to overcome the adverse effects associated with cell-free Hb has always been a major hurdle in the development of substitutes of allogeneic blood transfusions for all clinical situations where blood is unavailable or cannot be used due to, for example, religious objections. This class of therapeutics, indicated as hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), is formed by genetically and/or chemically modified Hbs. Many efforts were devoted to the exploitation of the wealth of biochemical and biophysical information available on Hb structure, function, and dynamics to design safe HBOCs, overcoming the negative effects of free plasma Hb. Unfortunately, so far, no HBOC has been approved by FDA and EMA, except for compassionate use. However, the unmet clinical needs that triggered intensive investigations more than fifty years ago are still awaiting an answer. Recently, HBOCs “repositioning” has led to their successful application in organ perfusion fluids.
From hemoglobin allostery to hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers / Faggiano, S.; Ronda, L.; Bruno, S.; Abbruzzetti, S.; Viappiani, C.; Bettati, S.; Mozzarelli, A.. - In: MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF MEDICINE. - ISSN 0098-2997. - 84:(2022), p. 101050.101050. [10.1016/j.mam.2021.101050]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2906360
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