Heteroditopic calixarenes are extensively exploited as synthetic receptors and as molecular components of supramolecular threaded and interlocked structures. We describe the synthesis of two novel calixarene macrocycles, the upper rim of which is functionalized with either two or three phenylthioureido groups. These moieties are excellent hydrogen-bond donors and largely affect the conformation of the macrocycle, both in solution and in the solid state. Alternate conformers are observed in solution, and they give rise to supramolecular chains in the solid state. Moreover, and because of this conformational freedom, also the recognition properties toward the formation of pseudorotaxanes with bipyridinium-based axles are strongly affected. The number of phenylthioureido units of the macrocyclic host and the nature of the counterions of the bipyridinium guest determine the stability of the complexes. NMR, UV-Vis and electrochemical measurements revealed that very stable 1 : 1 inclusion complexes are formed between the triphenylthioureido calixarene and a bipyridinium guest with tosylate counterions, whereas no complex is observed between the diphenylthioureido macrocycle and a hexafluorophosphate bipyridinium salt.
Thioureidocalixarenes Pseudorotaxanes / Cera, G.; Bazzoni, M.; Andreoni, L.; Cester Bonati, F.; Massera, C.; Silvi, S.; Credi, A.; Secchi, A.; Arduini, A.. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. - ISSN 1434-193X. - 2021:42(2021), pp. 5788-5798. [10.1002/ejoc.202101080]
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