Despite expanding next generation sequencing technologies and increasing clinical interest into complex neurologic phenotypes associating epilepsies and developmental/epileptic encephalopathies (DE/EE) with movement disorders (MD), these monogenic conditions have been less extensively investigated in the neonatal period compared to infancy. We reviewed the medical literature in the study period 2000–2020 to report on monogenic conditions characterized by neonatal onset epilepsy and/or DE/EE and development of an MD, and described their electroclinical, genetic and neuroimaging spectra. In accordance with a PRISMA statement, we created a data collection sheet and a protocol specifying inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 28 different genes (from 49 papers) leading to neonatal-onset DE/EE with multiple seizure types, mainly featuring tonic and myoclonic, but also focal motor seizures and a hyperkinetic MD in 89% of conditions, with neonatal onset in 22%, were identified. Neonatal seizure semiology, or MD age of onset, were not always available. The rate of hypokinetic MD was low, and was described from the neonatal period only, with WW domain containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) pathogenic variants. The outcome is characterized by high rates of associated neurodevelopmental disorders and microcephaly. Brain MRI findings are either normal or nonspecific in most conditions, but serial imaging can be necessary in order to detect progressive abnormalities. We found high genetic heterogeneity and low numbers of described patients. Neurological phenotypes are complex, reflecting the involvement of genes necessary for early brain development. Future studies should focus on accurate neonatal epileptic phenotyping, and detailed description of semiology and time-course, of the associated MD, especially for the rarest conditions.
Genetic Neonatal-Onset Epilepsies and Developmental/Epileptic Encephalopathies with Movement Disorders: A Systematic Review / Spagnoli, Carlotta; Fusco, Carlo; Percesepe, Antonio; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Pisani, Francesco. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 22:8(2021). [10.3390/ijms22084202]
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