Durum wheat is an important food source in Mediterranean countries, and Italy is the major producer of durum wheat in Europe. The quality of durum wheat flours depends on the type and amount of gluten proteins and starch while flour nutritional value rests on metabolite contents such as polyphenols. In this work, two Italian cultivars, Iride and Svevo, were analyzed for two years (2016–2017) in four Italian regions to explore how the environment affects: (i) reserve proteome; (ii) starch content and composition; and (iii) free, conjugated, bound phenolics and antioxidant capacity. The impact of environmental and meteorological conditions was significant for many traits. Regardless of the cultivation site, in 2017, a year with less rainfall and a higher temperature during grain filling, there was an increase in low molecular weight glutenins, in the glutenin/gliadin ratio and in the A–type starch granules size, all parameters of higher technological quality. In the same year, the cultivars showed higher amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, the two wheat cultivars, selected for their medium to high yield and their good quality, had higher performances in 2017 regardless of their sowing locations.
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