The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have significantly changed the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, despite their introduction, MM remains an incurable disease. The mAbs currently used for MM treatment were developed with different mechanisms of action able to target antigens, such as cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38) and SLAM family member 7 (SLAMF7) expressed by both, MM cells and the immune microenvironment cells. In this review, we focused on the mechanisms of action of the main mAbs approved for the therapy of MM, and on the possible novel approaches to improve MM cell killing by mAbs. Actually, the combination of anti-CD38 or anti-SLAMF7 mAbs with the immunomodulatory drugs significantly improved the clinical effect in MM patients. On the other hand, pre-clinical evidence indicates that different approaches may increase the efficacy of mAbs. The use of trans-retinoic acid, the cyclophosphamide or the combination of anti-CD47 and anti-CD137 mAbs have given the rationale to design these types of combinations therapies in MM patients in the future. In conclusion, a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the mAbs will allow us to develop novel therapeutic approaches to improve their response rate and to overcome their resistance in MM patients.
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