Objectives: We investigated the clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic determinants of the cardiac status in nonagenarian patients. Methods: We consecutively examined 654 Caucasian patients (232 males and 422 females) aged ≥90 years. All patients underwent clinical examination, ECG, and transthoracic echocardiography. Results: Their average age was 92.5 ± 2.5 years. Patients were predominately female of older age (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.02, respectively). A history of cardiovascular disease was present in 78.4% of the participants. One third of the patients was hospitalized for cardiovascular causes, with females being twice as many (p < 0.0001). Females showed higher levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and glycemia (p < 0.0001, p< 0.0001, and p = 0.04 respectively). Sinus rhythm was detected in 65%, and atrial fibrillation in 31% of the overall population. Heart rate, PR and corrected QT (QTc) intervals, right bundle branch block (RBBB) and RBBB associated with left anterior fascicular block (LAFB) were higher in males (p < 0.0001, p = 0.036, p = 0.009, p = 0.001, and p = 0.004, respectively). Aortic root dimension, left ventricular (LV) mass index, and indexed LV systolic-diastolic volumes were higher in males (p < 0.001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.0001, respectively). Women showed fewer LV segmental kinetic disorders (p = 0009) and higher LV ejection fraction (LVEF; p< 0.0001). Hyperuricemia was positively associated with a history of cardiovascular disease (r = 0.15), glycemia (r = 19), creatininemia (r = 0.50), uremia (r = 0.51), triglycerides (r = 0.19), PR interval (r = 0.14), and left bundle branch block (r = 0.11), and inversely associated with sinus rhythm (r = -0.14) and LVEF (r = -0.17). Diabetes was positively correlated with PR and QTc intervals (r = 0.14 and r = 0.10, respectively), and RBBB with LFAB (r = 0.10), and inversely correlated with LVEF (r = -0.10). Conclusions: We found a remarkable presence of cardiovascular risk factors, ECG, and structural alterations in hospitalized nonagenarians, which presents more commonly in males.
Clinical, Electrocardiographic, and Echocardiographic Features in Hospitalized Nonagenarians (90+): Comparison between the Genders / Tsialtas, D.; Bolognesi, M. G.; Assimopoulos, S.; Aldigeri, R.; Volpi, R.; Bolognesi, R.. - In: GERONTOLOGY. - ISSN 0304-324X. - 65:5(2019), pp. 485-494. [10.1159/000497812]
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