In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been recently proposed for the extraction, clean-up and preconcentration of analytes of biological and clinical concern. Bioanalysis can be performed by sampling exo- or endogenous compounds directly in living organisms with minimum invasiveness. In this context innovative and miniaturized devices characterized by both commercial and lab-made coatings for in vivo SPME tissue sampling have been proposed, thus assessing the feasibility of this technique for biomarker discovery, metabolomics studies or for evaluating the environmental conditions to which organisms can be exposed. Finally, the possibility of directly interfacing SPME to mass spectrometers represents a valuable tool for the rapid quali- and quantitative analysis of complex matrices. This review article provides a survey of in vivo SPME applications focusing on the extraction of tissues, cells and simple organisms. This survey will attempt to cover the state-of- the-art from 2014 up to 2019.
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