Cheese yield (CY) is the most important technological trait of milk, because cheese-making uses a very high proportion of the milk produced worldwide. Few studies have been carried out at the level of individual milk-producing animals due to a scarcity of appropriate procedures for model-cheese production, the complexity of cheese-making, and the frequent use of the fat and protein (or casein) contents of milk as a proxy for cheese yield. Here, we report a high-throughput cheese manufacturing process that mimics all phases of cheese-making, uses 1.5-L samples of milk from individual animals, and allows the simultaneous processing of 15 samples per run. Milk samples were heated (35°C for 40 min), inoculated with starter culture (90 min), mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk), and recorded for gelation time. Curds were cut twice (10 and 15 min after gelation), separated from the whey, drained (for 30min), pressed (3 times, 20 min each, with the wheel turned each time), salted in brine (for 60min), weighed, and sampled. Whey was collected, weighed, and sampled. Milk, curd, and whey samples were analyzed for pH, total solids, fat content, and protein content, and energy content was estimated. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, representing the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, and RECSOLIDS, which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Energy recovery, RECENERGY, represented the energy content of the cheese compared with that in the milk. This procedure was used to process individual milk samples obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds of the province of Trento (Italy). The assessed traits exhibited almost normal distributions, with the exception of RECFAT. The average values (± SD) were as follows: %CYCURD=14.97±1.86, %CYSOLIDS=7.18±0.92, %CYWATER=7.77±1.27, dCYCURD=3.63±1.17, dCYSOLIDS=1.74±0.57, dCYWATER=1.88±0.63, RECFAT=89.79±3.55, RECPROTEIN=78.08±2.43, RECSOLIDS=51.88±3.52, and RECENERGY=67.19±3.29. All traits were highly influenced by herd-test-date and days in milk of the cow, moderately influenced by parity, and weakly influenced by the utilized vat. Both %CYCURDand dCYCURDdepended not only on the fat and protein (casein) contents of the milk, but also on their proportions retained in the curd; the water trapped in curd presented an higher variability than that of %CYSOLIDS. All REC traits were variable and affected by days in milk and parity of the cows. The described model cheese-making procedure and the results obtained provided new insight into the phenotypic variation of cheese yield and recovery traits at the individual level. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.

Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process / CIPOLAT GOTET, Claudio; Cecchinato, A.; De Marchi, M.; Bittante, G.. - In: JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. - ISSN 0022-0302. - 96:12(2013), pp. 7952-7965. [10.3168/jds.2012-6516]

Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process

CIPOLAT GOTET, CLAUDIO;
2013-01-01

Abstract

Cheese yield (CY) is the most important technological trait of milk, because cheese-making uses a very high proportion of the milk produced worldwide. Few studies have been carried out at the level of individual milk-producing animals due to a scarcity of appropriate procedures for model-cheese production, the complexity of cheese-making, and the frequent use of the fat and protein (or casein) contents of milk as a proxy for cheese yield. Here, we report a high-throughput cheese manufacturing process that mimics all phases of cheese-making, uses 1.5-L samples of milk from individual animals, and allows the simultaneous processing of 15 samples per run. Milk samples were heated (35°C for 40 min), inoculated with starter culture (90 min), mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk), and recorded for gelation time. Curds were cut twice (10 and 15 min after gelation), separated from the whey, drained (for 30min), pressed (3 times, 20 min each, with the wheel turned each time), salted in brine (for 60min), weighed, and sampled. Whey was collected, weighed, and sampled. Milk, curd, and whey samples were analyzed for pH, total solids, fat content, and protein content, and energy content was estimated. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, representing the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, and RECSOLIDS, which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Energy recovery, RECENERGY, represented the energy content of the cheese compared with that in the milk. This procedure was used to process individual milk samples obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds of the province of Trento (Italy). The assessed traits exhibited almost normal distributions, with the exception of RECFAT. The average values (± SD) were as follows: %CYCURD=14.97±1.86, %CYSOLIDS=7.18±0.92, %CYWATER=7.77±1.27, dCYCURD=3.63±1.17, dCYSOLIDS=1.74±0.57, dCYWATER=1.88±0.63, RECFAT=89.79±3.55, RECPROTEIN=78.08±2.43, RECSOLIDS=51.88±3.52, and RECENERGY=67.19±3.29. All traits were highly influenced by herd-test-date and days in milk of the cow, moderately influenced by parity, and weakly influenced by the utilized vat. Both %CYCURDand dCYCURDdepended not only on the fat and protein (casein) contents of the milk, but also on their proportions retained in the curd; the water trapped in curd presented an higher variability than that of %CYSOLIDS. All REC traits were variable and affected by days in milk and parity of the cows. The described model cheese-making procedure and the results obtained provided new insight into the phenotypic variation of cheese yield and recovery traits at the individual level. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.
Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process / CIPOLAT GOTET, Claudio; Cecchinato, A.; De Marchi, M.; Bittante, G.. - In: JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. - ISSN 0022-0302. - 96:12(2013), pp. 7952-7965. [10.3168/jds.2012-6516]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2843065
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