The rapid spread of severe infections mainly due to resistant pathogens, justifies the search for therapies aiming to restore immune functions severely compromised in patients with hematologic malignancies. Areas covered: The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of granulocyte transfusions and colony-stimulating factors as treatment strategy for hematologic patients with serious infectious complications. In addition, a survey among 21 hematologic centers, to evaluate the clinical practice for the use of G-CSF originator and biosimilars was performed. Expert commentary: Granulocyte transfusions with a target dose of at least 1.5-3 × 108 cells/kg, may be considered as an approach to bridge the gap between marrow suppression and recovery of granulocytes. G-CSF shortens the period of neutropenia, the hospitalization, the use of antibiotics and the rate of febrile neutropenia (FN) in adult and pediatric patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and in adults with acute myeloid leukemia where these advantages nevertheless, did not translate into a clinical benefit. G-CSF biosimilar showed equivalence or non-inferiority to filgrastim. There are no data supporting the use of GM-CSF, eltrombopag and erythropoietin for preventing or treating infectious complications in patients with hematologic disorders.
SEIFEM 2017: from real life to an agreement on the use of granulocyte transfusions and colony-stimulating factors for prophylaxis and treatment of infectious complications in patients with hematologic malignant disorders / Busca, Alessandro; Cesaro, Simone; Teofili, Luciana; Delia, Mario; Cattaneo, Chiara; Criscuolo, Marianna; Marchesi, Francesco; Fracchiolla, Nicola Stefano; Valentini, Caterina Giovanna; Farina, Francesca; Di Blasi, Roberta; Prezioso, Lucia; Spolzino, Angelica; Candoni, Anna; Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Verga, Luisa; Nosari, Annamaria; Aversa, Franco; Pagano, Livio. - In: EXPERT REVIEW OF HEMATOLOGY. - ISSN 1747-4086. - 11:2(2018), pp. 155-168-168. [10.1080/17474086.2018.1420472]
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