Background: Hemorrhagic Hereditary Telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the presence of multiple arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Migraine is described in association with HHT in adulthood, while only few paediatric cases are reported in the literature. Aim: In this paper, we describe an atypical case of HHT in a 7-year-old boy, who presented severe and recurrent episodes of migraine-like headache as the first symptom of the disease. Methods: The patient was accurately investigated both clinically (general, neurological and dermatological examinations), instrumentally (electroencephalogram, brain magnetic resonance, transcranic Eco-color-Doppler, contrast echocardiography and enhanced chest computed tomography) and genetically. Results: Familial history was positive for HHT in the paternal line. Both general and neurological examination were normal. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a minor old infarct in the right parietal and occipital lobes. Transcranic Eco-color-Doppler, contrast echocardiography and enhanced chest computed tomography revealed a pulmonary AVM. Cephalalgia resolved after transcatheter embolotherapy. A genetic test, identifying the mutation in endoglin gene both in the patient and in the father, confirmed the suspected diagnosis of HHT. Conclusions: Although headache is rarely reported in children as the first symptom of HHT, we warn clinicians on this possible link, as a promptly diagnosis is advisable in order to prevent potential complications.
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