Today human leukocyte antigen-haploidentical transplantation is a feasible option for patients with high-risk acute leukemia who do not have matched donors. Whether it is T-cell replete or T-cell depleted, it is still, however, associated with issues of transplant-related mortality and posttrans-plant leukemia relapse. After reports that adoptive immunotherapy with T-regulatory cells controls the alloreactivityof conventional T lymphocytes in animal models, tomorrow’s world of haploidentical transplantation will focus on new “designed” grafts. They will contain an appropriate ratio of conventional T lymphocytes and T-regulatory cells, natural killer cells, gd T cells, and other accessory cells. Preliminary results of ongoing clinical trials show the approach is feasible. It is associated with better immune reconstitution and a quite powerful graft-versus-leukemia effect with a low incidence of graft-versus-host disease and no need for posttransplant pharmacological prophylaxis. Future strategies will focus on enhancing the clinical benefit of T-regulatory cells by increasing their number and strengthening their function.
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