Posttransplant relapse is still the major cause of treatment failure in high-risk acute leukemia. Attempts to manipulate alloreactive T cells to spare normal cells while killing leukemic cells have been unsuccessful. In HLA-haploidentical transplantation,we reported that donor-derived T regulatory cells (Tregs), coinfused with conventional T cells (Tcons), protected recipients against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The present phase 2 study investigated whether Treg-Tcon adoptive immunotherapy prevents post-transplant leukemia relapse. Forty-three adults with high-risk acute leukemia (acute myeloid leukemia 33; acute lymphoblastic leukemia 10) were conditioned with a total body irradiation–based regimen. Grafts included CD341 cells (mean 9.7 3 106 /kg), Tregs (mean 2.5 3 106/kg), and Tcons (mean 1.1 3 106 /kg). No posttransplant immunosuppression was given. Ninety-five percent of patients achieved full-donor type engraftment and 15% developed ‡grade 2 acute GVHD. The probability of disease-free survival was 0.56 at a median follow-up of 46 months. The very low cumulative incidence of relapse (0.05)was significantly better than in historical ical controls. These results demonstrate the immunosuppressive potential of Tregs can be used to suppress GVHD without loss of the benefits of graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity. Humanized murine models provided insights into the mechanisms underlying separation of GVL from GVHD, suggesting the GVL effect is due to largely unopposed Tcon alloantigen recognition in bone marrow. he benefits of graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity. Humanized murine models provided eparation of GVL fromGVHD, suggesting theGVL effect is due to largely unopposed Tcon Blood. 2014;124(4):638-644)
HLA-haploidentical transplantation with regulatory and conventional T-cell adoptive immunotherapy prevents acute leukemia relapse / Massimo F. Martelli; Mauro Di Ianni; Loredana Ruggeri; Franca Falzetti; Alessandra Carotti; Adelmo Terenzi; Antonio Pierini; Maria Speranza Massei; Lucia Amico; Elena Urbani; Beatrice Del Papa; Tiziana Zei; Roberta Iacucci Ostini; Debora Cecchini; Rita Tognellini; Yair Reisner; Franco Aversa; Brunangelo Falini; and Andrea Velardi. - In: BLOOD. - ISSN 0006-4971. - 124:4(2014), pp. 638-644.
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