Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from HLA haploidentical mismatched donors has recently been developed for patients with high-risk acute leukemia who do not have a matched donor. After a high intensity conditioning regimen the HLA barrier is overcome by infusing a graft containing a megadose of T cell-depleted progenitor cells. Nowadays, for graft processing automated peripheral blood CD34(+) cell immunoselection is time and labor saving and ensures a high CD34(+) cell recovery rate. Besides providing 4.5 log T cell depletion of the graft, it guarantees a 3.5 log B cell depletion, which helps prevent EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders. Excellent engraftment rates are associated with a very low incidence of graft-versus-host disease and regimen-related mortality even in patients who are over 40 years old. Overall, event-free survival and transplant-related mortality compare favorably with reports from unrelated matched transplants. Donor natural killer cell alloreactivity also plays a role in improving outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. These results show the haploidentical transplant to be a viable, alternative source of stem cells for adults with acute leukemia at high-risk of relapse who do not have matched donors, and encourage extending it to patients with an indication to transplant.
Transplantation of haploidentically mismatched stem cells for the treatment of malignant diseases. / F. Aversa ; MF. Martelli. - In: SPRINGER SEMINARS IN IMMUNOPATHOLOGY. - ISSN 0344-4325. - 26(2004), pp. 155-168.
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