In recent years, prospective studies have been conducted to assess the role of prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Although results of these studies have been encouraging, they have been unable to generate a consensus for optimal prophylaxis and treatment of IFD in the complex scenario of allo-HSCT. A consensus process was undertaken to describe and evaluate current information and practice regarding key questions on IFD management in allo-HSCT recipients; these questions were selected according to the criterion of relevance by group discussion. The Panel produced recommendations for risk stratification, prophylaxis, monitoring, and therapy of IFD and identified top priority issues for further investigation. The definition of the level of risk for IFD associated with the various types and phases of transplantation and the implementation of surveillance and diagnostic strategies are the critical determinants of the antifungal prophylactic and therapeutic approach for allo-HSCT recipients.
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