T helper (Th) 17 cells have emerged as important mediators in infectious and inflammatory diseases and, recently, in transplant rejection. We analyzed the associations between five common genetic variants in the IL-23/Th17 signaling pathway, namely in IL17A, IL17F and IL23R genes, and clinical outcome in T cell-depleted allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT). In the multivariate analysis, variants in IL23R and IL17A genes were the most important prognostic factors. Thus, patient GA genotype at rs11209026 in IL23R was associated with improved overall survival (hazard ratio (HR)=0.48; P=0.028) and, in donor, with decreased risk of fungal infections (P=0.05). In contrast, patient TC and CC genotypes at rs8193036 in IL17A gene were associated with increased risk of CMV infection (HR=3.68; P=0.011) and patient acute GVHD (HR=7.08; P=0.008), respectively. These results suggest that genetic variants in the IL-23/Th17 inflammatory pathway are important prognostic factors for the clinical outcome of allo-SCT. Although validation studies are ultimately required, our results would suggest the potential usefulness of IL-23/Th17 genotyping in donor selection and patient evaluation.
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