Much progress has been made in the clinical, biological and technical aspects of the T-cell-depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Our experience demonstrates that infusing a megadose of extensively T-cell-depleted hematopoietic peripheral blood stem cells after an immuno-myeloablative conditioning regimen in acute leukemia patients ensures sustained engraftment with minimal GvHD without the need of any post-transplant immunosuppressive treatment. Since our first successful pilot study, our efforts have concentrated on developing new conditioning regimens, optimizing the graft processing and improving the post-transplant immunological recovery. The results we have so far achieved in high risk acute leukemia patients show that haploidentical transplantation is now a clinical reality. The present challenge is to reduce post-transplant infectious mortality and several strategies are being tested.