The role of allogeneic stem cell transplant in advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia patients who received standard first and second-line therapy is still unknown. We report the outcome of 31 acute promyelocytic leukemia patients (median age 39) who underwent allogeneic transplant in second-remission (15patients) or beyond (16patients. Sixteen patients were RT-PCR positive and 15 negative for PML/RARA pre-transplant. The 4-year overall-survival was 62 % and 31% for patients transplanted in second-remission and beyond, respectively (p=0.05) and 64% and 27% for patients with RT-PCR-negative and positive pre-transplant, respectively (p=0.03). The 4-year cumulative-incidence of relapse was 32% and 44% for patients transplanted in second-remission and beyond, respectively (p=0.37) and 30% and 47% for patients transplanted with negative and positive RT-PCR, respectively (p=0.30). Transplant-related mortality was 19.6%. In conclusion, allogeneic transplant is effective in advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia in the all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide era and should be considered once relapse is diagnosed.
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