Abstract: An epidemiological study on the urinary tract anomalies (UTA) associated with other congenital malformations or syndromes ascertained by the Emilia-Romagna Registry on Congenital Malformations (IMER) among 209,882 consecutive births monitored during the period 1981-1990 is presented. UTA were ascertained in 349 infants for a rate at birth of 16.6 per 10,000 total births, or one case for every 600 births. The occurrence rate of UTA increased significantly during the ten years of monitoring passing from 6.1 per 10,000 in 1981-1982 to 25.1 in 1989-1990 (r = 0.85; p < 0.001). This increase is in connection with a progressively higher notification of isolated cases of UTA, directly related to the impact of the prenatal diagnosis. Among the 349 cases, 106 (30.4%) were associated with other conditions, including 18 who had chromosomal aberrations (ChrA). The incidence in the total number of the ChrA registered was 43.6 per 1,000. Genetic syndromes (GS) in 33 cases with a specific rate of 150 per 1,000, and 55 cases of multiples with a specific rate of 205.2 per 1,000. In multiples we observed some preferential associations of UTA with intestinal defects and severe ear defects (p < 0.001) and for Central Nervous System and heart defects (p < 0.05). UTA are often associated with other extrarenal defects and sometimes are a component of syndromes that are difficult to identify and for which genetic implications are great and genetic counselling necessary. Pediatricians need to be aware of the possible involvement of the kidney in specific and rare syndromes, and pediatric nephrologists must recognize the association of renal diseases with abnormalities in other physiological systems.
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