Aims Previous analyses on sex differences in case fatality rates at population-level data had limited adjustment for key patient clinical characteristics thought to be associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. We aimed to estimate the risk of specific organ dysfunctions and mortality in women and men. Methods and results This retrospective cross-sectional study included 17 hospitals within 5 European countries participating in the International Survey of Acute Coronavirus Syndromes COVID-19 (NCT05188612). Participants were individuals hospitalized with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from March 2020 to February 2022. Risk-adjusted ratios (RRs) of in-hospital mortality, acute respiratory failure (ARF), acute heart failure (AHF), and acute kidney injury (AKI) were calculated for women vs. men. Estimates were evaluated by inverse probability weighting and logistic regression models. The overall care cohort included 4499 patients with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Of these, 1524 (33.9%) were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), and 1117 (24.8%) died during hospitalization. Compared with men, women were less likely to be admitted to ICU [RR: 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71-0.91]. In general wards (GWs) and ICU cohorts, the adjusted women-to-men RRs for in-hospital mortality were of 1.13 (95% CI: 0.90-1.42) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.70-1.05; p(interaction) = 0.04). Development of AHF, AKI, and ARF was associated with increased mortality risk (odds ratios: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.73-2.98; 3.85, 95% CI: 3.21-4.63; and 3.95, 95% CI: 3.04-5.14, respectively). The adjusted RRs for AKI and ARF were comparable among women and men regardless of intensity of care. In contrast, female sex was associated with higher odds for AHF in GW, but not in ICU (RRs: 1.25; 95% CI: 0.94-1.67 vs. 0.83; 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p(interaction) = 0.04). Conclusions Women in GW were at increased risk of AHF and in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 compared with men. For patients receiving ICU care, fatal complications including AHF and mortality appeared to be independent of sex. Equitable access to COVID-19 ICU care is needed to minimize the unfavourable outcome of women presenting with COVID-19-related complications.

Sex differences and disparities in cardiovascular outcomes of COVID-19 / Bugiardini, Raffaele; Nava, Stefano; Caramori, Gaetano; Yoon, Jinsung; Badimon, Lina; Bergami, Maria; Cenko, Edina; David, Antonio; Demiri, Ilir; Dorobantu, Maria; Fronea, Oana; Jankovic, Radmilo; Kedev, Sasko; Ladjevic, Nebojsa; Lasica, Ratko; Loncar, Goran; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Mendieta, Guiomar; Miličić, Davor; Mjehović, Petra; Pašalić, Marijan; Petrović, Milovan; Poposka, Lidija; Scarpone, Marialuisa; Stefanovic, Milena; van der Schaar, Mihaela; Vasiljevic, Zorana; Vavlukis, Marija; Vega Pittao, Maria Laura; Vukomanovic, Vladan; Zdravkovic, Marija; Manfrini, Olivia. - In: CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH. - ISSN 1755-3245. - 119:5(2023), pp. 1190-1201. [10.1093/cvr/cvad011]

Sex differences and disparities in cardiovascular outcomes of COVID-19

Caramori, Gaetano;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Aims Previous analyses on sex differences in case fatality rates at population-level data had limited adjustment for key patient clinical characteristics thought to be associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. We aimed to estimate the risk of specific organ dysfunctions and mortality in women and men. Methods and results This retrospective cross-sectional study included 17 hospitals within 5 European countries participating in the International Survey of Acute Coronavirus Syndromes COVID-19 (NCT05188612). Participants were individuals hospitalized with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from March 2020 to February 2022. Risk-adjusted ratios (RRs) of in-hospital mortality, acute respiratory failure (ARF), acute heart failure (AHF), and acute kidney injury (AKI) were calculated for women vs. men. Estimates were evaluated by inverse probability weighting and logistic regression models. The overall care cohort included 4499 patients with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Of these, 1524 (33.9%) were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), and 1117 (24.8%) died during hospitalization. Compared with men, women were less likely to be admitted to ICU [RR: 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71-0.91]. In general wards (GWs) and ICU cohorts, the adjusted women-to-men RRs for in-hospital mortality were of 1.13 (95% CI: 0.90-1.42) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.70-1.05; p(interaction) = 0.04). Development of AHF, AKI, and ARF was associated with increased mortality risk (odds ratios: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.73-2.98; 3.85, 95% CI: 3.21-4.63; and 3.95, 95% CI: 3.04-5.14, respectively). The adjusted RRs for AKI and ARF were comparable among women and men regardless of intensity of care. In contrast, female sex was associated with higher odds for AHF in GW, but not in ICU (RRs: 1.25; 95% CI: 0.94-1.67 vs. 0.83; 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p(interaction) = 0.04). Conclusions Women in GW were at increased risk of AHF and in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 compared with men. For patients receiving ICU care, fatal complications including AHF and mortality appeared to be independent of sex. Equitable access to COVID-19 ICU care is needed to minimize the unfavourable outcome of women presenting with COVID-19-related complications.
2023
Sex differences and disparities in cardiovascular outcomes of COVID-19 / Bugiardini, Raffaele; Nava, Stefano; Caramori, Gaetano; Yoon, Jinsung; Badimon, Lina; Bergami, Maria; Cenko, Edina; David, Antonio; Demiri, Ilir; Dorobantu, Maria; Fronea, Oana; Jankovic, Radmilo; Kedev, Sasko; Ladjevic, Nebojsa; Lasica, Ratko; Loncar, Goran; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Mendieta, Guiomar; Miličić, Davor; Mjehović, Petra; Pašalić, Marijan; Petrović, Milovan; Poposka, Lidija; Scarpone, Marialuisa; Stefanovic, Milena; van der Schaar, Mihaela; Vasiljevic, Zorana; Vavlukis, Marija; Vega Pittao, Maria Laura; Vukomanovic, Vladan; Zdravkovic, Marija; Manfrini, Olivia. - In: CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH. - ISSN 1755-3245. - 119:5(2023), pp. 1190-1201. [10.1093/cvr/cvad011]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2964174
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