The work assesses the availability and localizations of different raw materials suitable for ocean alkalinity enhancement (OAE), like limestone, olivine, magnesite and brucite, since several billion tons of rocky materials are needed to achieve meaningful results for carbon sequestration through OAE. Resources of carbonates are immense and widespread around all continents. Availability of pure carbonates is still very large (outcrop area 4.1 million km(2)) and is not a constraint for the large-scale development of OAE. Outcrops of pure carbonates within 10 km from the coastline and below bare ground or scrub/shrub, preferred for the logistics of exploitation, account for about 70,000 km(2), and could provide about 5,000 Gt of limestone. These values increase by a factor of 3 and 8 within 50 and 100 km from the coastline, respectively. Potential resources of olivine, less easily identifiable from the geological data, are estimated in the order of a few hundred billion tons and could provide only a minor contribution to ocean-based carbon removal strategies. A comparison with the current level of world extraction of mineral raw materials is also provided. The annual production of limestone, estimated to be more than 6.6 Gt from deposits scattered all around the world, is about 9% of the world production of mineral raw materials (around 44 Gt yr(-1)), and is of the same order of magnitude as coal (7.3 Gt yr(-1)). The annual productions of magnesite (29 Mt yr(-1)), olivine (8.4 Mt yr(-1)) and brucite (1.5 Mt yr(-1)) are two orders of magnitude lower.

The Availability of Limestone and Other Raw Materials for Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement / Caserini, S; Storni, N; Grosso, M. - In: GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES. - ISSN 0886-6236. - 36:5(2022), pp. 1-15. [10.1029/2021GB007246]

The Availability of Limestone and Other Raw Materials for Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement

Caserini, S;
2022-01-01

Abstract

The work assesses the availability and localizations of different raw materials suitable for ocean alkalinity enhancement (OAE), like limestone, olivine, magnesite and brucite, since several billion tons of rocky materials are needed to achieve meaningful results for carbon sequestration through OAE. Resources of carbonates are immense and widespread around all continents. Availability of pure carbonates is still very large (outcrop area 4.1 million km(2)) and is not a constraint for the large-scale development of OAE. Outcrops of pure carbonates within 10 km from the coastline and below bare ground or scrub/shrub, preferred for the logistics of exploitation, account for about 70,000 km(2), and could provide about 5,000 Gt of limestone. These values increase by a factor of 3 and 8 within 50 and 100 km from the coastline, respectively. Potential resources of olivine, less easily identifiable from the geological data, are estimated in the order of a few hundred billion tons and could provide only a minor contribution to ocean-based carbon removal strategies. A comparison with the current level of world extraction of mineral raw materials is also provided. The annual production of limestone, estimated to be more than 6.6 Gt from deposits scattered all around the world, is about 9% of the world production of mineral raw materials (around 44 Gt yr(-1)), and is of the same order of magnitude as coal (7.3 Gt yr(-1)). The annual productions of magnesite (29 Mt yr(-1)), olivine (8.4 Mt yr(-1)) and brucite (1.5 Mt yr(-1)) are two orders of magnitude lower.
2022
The Availability of Limestone and Other Raw Materials for Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement / Caserini, S; Storni, N; Grosso, M. - In: GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES. - ISSN 0886-6236. - 36:5(2022), pp. 1-15. [10.1029/2021GB007246]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2961402
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