: The main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is active smoking. However, a considerable amount of people with COPD never smoked, and increasing evidence suggests that adult lung disease can have its origins in prenatal and early life. This article reviews some of the factors that can potentially affect lung development and lung function trajectories throughout the lifespan from genetics and prematurity to respiratory tract infections and childhood asthma. Maternal smoking and air pollution exposure were also analyzed among the environmental factors. The adoption of preventive strategies to avoid these risk factors since the prenatal period may be crucial to prevent, delay the onset or modify the progression of COPD lung disease throughout life.
Early Origins of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Prenatal and Early Life Risk Factors / Deolmi, Michela; Decarolis, Nicola Mattia; Motta, Matteo; Makrinioti, Heidi; Fainardi, Valentina; Pisi, Giovanna; Esposito, Susanna. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH. - ISSN 1660-4601. - 20:3(2023), p. 2294. [10.3390/ijerph20032294]