N,N '-Dialkylpiperazine-2,3-dithiones (R2pipdt) were recognized as a class of hexa-atomic cyclic dithiooxamide ligands with peculiar charge-transfer donor properties toward sof t electron-acceptors such as noble metal cations and diiodine. The latter interaction is nowadays better described as halogen bonding. In t h e reaction with diiodine, R2pipdt unexpectedly provides the correspond-ing triiodide salts, differently from the other dithiooxamides, which instead typically achieve ligand center dot nI2 halogen-bonded adducts. In this paper, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study that allows elucidation of the nature of the cited products and the reasons behind the unpredictable behavior of these ligands. Specifically, low-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements on a series of synthetically obtained R2pipdt (R = Me, iPr, Bz)/I3 salts, complemented by neutron diffraction experiments, were able to experimentally highlight the formation of [R2pipdtH]+ cations with a -S-H bond on the dithionic moiety. Differently, with R = Ph, a benzothiazolylium cation, resulting from an intramolecular condensation reaction of the ligand, is obtained. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, a reasonable reaction mechanism where diiodine plays the fundamental role of promoting a halogen-bonding-mediated radical reaction has been proposed. In addition, the comparison of combined experimental and computational results with the corresponding reactions of N,N '- dialkylperhydrodiazepine-2,3-dithione (R2dazdt, a hepta-atomic cyclic dithiooxamide), which provide neutral halogen-bonded adducts, pointed out that the difference in the torsion angle of the free ligands represents the structural key factor in determi n i n g the different reactivities of the two systems.
Halogen-Bonding-Mediated Radical Reactions: The Unexpected Behavior of Piperazine-Based Dithiooxamide Ligands in the Presence of Diiodine / Rizzato, Silvia; Manca, Gabriele; Lemée, Marie-Hélène; Marchio', Luciano; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia; Guerri, Annalisa; Ienco, Andrea; Serpe, Angela; Deplano, Paola. - In: INORGANIC CHEMISTRY. - ISSN 0020-1669. - 62:2(2023), pp. 694-705. [10.1021/acs.inorgchem.2c02340]