Abstract: Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a viral disease caused by a Henipavirus, belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family, responsible for a zoonosis. The course of the disease can be very serious and lead to death. NiV natural hosts are fruit bats (also known as megabats) belonging to the Pteropodidae family, especially those of the Pteropus genus. Natural infection in domestic animals has been described in farming pigs, horses, domestic and feral dogs and cats. Natural NiV transmission is possible intra-species (pig-to-pig, human-to-human) and inter-species (flying bat-to-human, pigto- human, horse-to-human). The infection can be spread by humans or animals in different ways. It is peculiar how the viral transmission modes among different hosts also change depending on the geographical area for different reasons, including different breeding methods, eating habits and the recently identified genetic traits/molecular features of main virus proteins related to virulence. Outbreaks have been described in Malaysia, Singapore, Bangladesh, India and the Philippines with, in some cases, severe respiratory and neurological disease and high mortality in both humans and pigs. Diagnosis can be made using different methods including serological, molecular, virological and immunohistochemical methods. The cornerstones for control of the disease are biosecurity (via the correct management of reservoir and intermediate/amplifying hosts) and potential vaccines which are still under development. However, the evaluation of the potential influence of climate and anthropogenic changes on the NiV reservoir bats and their habitat as well as on disease spread and inter-specific infections is of great importance. Bats, as natural reservoirs of the virus, are responsible for the viral spread and, therefore, for the outbreaks of the disease in humans and animals. Due to the worldwide distribution of bats, potential new reports and spillovers are not to be dismissed in the future.

Nipah Virus Disease: Epidemiological, Clinical, Diagnostic and Legislative Aspects of This Unpredictable Emerging Zoonosis / Bruno, Luigi; Anna Nappo, Maria; Ferrari, Luca; DI LECCE, Rosanna; Guarnieri, Chiara; Cantoni, Anna Maria; Corradi, Attilio. - In: ANIMALS. - ISSN 2076-2615. - 13:159(2023), pp. 1-36. [10.3390/ani13010159]

Nipah Virus Disease: Epidemiological, Clinical, Diagnostic and Legislative Aspects of This Unpredictable Emerging Zoonosis

Luca Ferrari
Conceptualization
;
Rosanna Di Lecce
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Chiara Guarnieri
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Anna Maria Cantoni
Conceptualization
;
Attilio Corradi
Conceptualization
2023-01-01

Abstract

Abstract: Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a viral disease caused by a Henipavirus, belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family, responsible for a zoonosis. The course of the disease can be very serious and lead to death. NiV natural hosts are fruit bats (also known as megabats) belonging to the Pteropodidae family, especially those of the Pteropus genus. Natural infection in domestic animals has been described in farming pigs, horses, domestic and feral dogs and cats. Natural NiV transmission is possible intra-species (pig-to-pig, human-to-human) and inter-species (flying bat-to-human, pigto- human, horse-to-human). The infection can be spread by humans or animals in different ways. It is peculiar how the viral transmission modes among different hosts also change depending on the geographical area for different reasons, including different breeding methods, eating habits and the recently identified genetic traits/molecular features of main virus proteins related to virulence. Outbreaks have been described in Malaysia, Singapore, Bangladesh, India and the Philippines with, in some cases, severe respiratory and neurological disease and high mortality in both humans and pigs. Diagnosis can be made using different methods including serological, molecular, virological and immunohistochemical methods. The cornerstones for control of the disease are biosecurity (via the correct management of reservoir and intermediate/amplifying hosts) and potential vaccines which are still under development. However, the evaluation of the potential influence of climate and anthropogenic changes on the NiV reservoir bats and their habitat as well as on disease spread and inter-specific infections is of great importance. Bats, as natural reservoirs of the virus, are responsible for the viral spread and, therefore, for the outbreaks of the disease in humans and animals. Due to the worldwide distribution of bats, potential new reports and spillovers are not to be dismissed in the future.
2023
Nipah Virus Disease: Epidemiological, Clinical, Diagnostic and Legislative Aspects of This Unpredictable Emerging Zoonosis / Bruno, Luigi; Anna Nappo, Maria; Ferrari, Luca; DI LECCE, Rosanna; Guarnieri, Chiara; Cantoni, Anna Maria; Corradi, Attilio. - In: ANIMALS. - ISSN 2076-2615. - 13:159(2023), pp. 1-36. [10.3390/ani13010159]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2936492
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