Background. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays performed on respiratory samples collected through nasal swabs still represent the gold standard for COVID19 diagnosis. Alternative methods to this invasive and time-consuming options are still being inquired, including the collection of airways lining fluids through exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Materials and Methods. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to explore the reliability of EBC as a way to collect respiratory specimens for RT-qPCR for diagnosis of COVID-19. Results. A total of 4 studies (205 specimens), were ultimately collected, with a pooled sensitivity of 69.5% (95%CI 26.8-93.4), and a pooled specificity of 98.3% (95%CI 87.8-99.8), associated with high heterogeneity and scarce diagnostic agreement with the gold standard represented by nasal swabs (Cohen's kappa = 0.585). Discussion. Even though non-invasive options for diagnosis of COVID-19 are still necessary, EBC-based RT-qPCR showed scarce diagnostic performances, ultimately impairing its implementation in real-world settings. However, as few studies have been carried out to date, and the studies included in the present review are characterized by low numbers and low sample power, further research are requested to fully characterize the actual reliability of EBC-based RT-qPCR in the diagnosis of COVID-19.

Potential Use of Exhaled Breath Condensate for Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis / Riccò, Matteo; Zaniboni, Alessandro; Satta, Elia; Ranzieri, Silvia; Marchesi, Federico. - In: DIAGNOSTICS. - ISSN 2075-4418. - 12:9(2022), p. 2245. [10.3390/diagnostics12092245]

Potential Use of Exhaled Breath Condensate for Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Zaniboni, Alessandro;Satta, Elia;Ranzieri, Silvia;Marchesi, Federico
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays performed on respiratory samples collected through nasal swabs still represent the gold standard for COVID19 diagnosis. Alternative methods to this invasive and time-consuming options are still being inquired, including the collection of airways lining fluids through exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Materials and Methods. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to explore the reliability of EBC as a way to collect respiratory specimens for RT-qPCR for diagnosis of COVID-19. Results. A total of 4 studies (205 specimens), were ultimately collected, with a pooled sensitivity of 69.5% (95%CI 26.8-93.4), and a pooled specificity of 98.3% (95%CI 87.8-99.8), associated with high heterogeneity and scarce diagnostic agreement with the gold standard represented by nasal swabs (Cohen's kappa = 0.585). Discussion. Even though non-invasive options for diagnosis of COVID-19 are still necessary, EBC-based RT-qPCR showed scarce diagnostic performances, ultimately impairing its implementation in real-world settings. However, as few studies have been carried out to date, and the studies included in the present review are characterized by low numbers and low sample power, further research are requested to fully characterize the actual reliability of EBC-based RT-qPCR in the diagnosis of COVID-19.
Potential Use of Exhaled Breath Condensate for Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis / Riccò, Matteo; Zaniboni, Alessandro; Satta, Elia; Ranzieri, Silvia; Marchesi, Federico. - In: DIAGNOSTICS. - ISSN 2075-4418. - 12:9(2022), p. 2245. [10.3390/diagnostics12092245]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2933659
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