Maintaining protein lipoylation is vital for cell metabolism. The H-protein encoded by GCSH has a dual role in protein lipoylation required for bioenergetic enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and in the one-carbon metabolism through its involvement in glycine cleavage enzyme system, intersecting two vital roles for cell survival. Here we report six patients with biallelic pathogenic variants in GCSH and a broad clinical spectrum ranging from neonatal fatal glycine encephalopathy to an attenuated phenotype of developmental delay, behavioral problems, limited epilepsy, and variable movement problems. The mutational spectrum includes one insertion c.293-2_293-1insT, one deletion c.122_(228 + 1_229-1) del, one duplication of exons 4 and 5, one nonsense variant p.Gln76*and four missense p.His57Arg, p.Pro115Leu, and p.Thr148Pro and the previously described p.Met1?. Via functional studies in patient's fibroblasts, molecular modelling, expression analysis in GCSH knock-down COS7 cells and yeast, and in vitro protein studies, we demonstrate for the first time that most variants identified in our cohort produced a hypomorphic effect on both mitochondrial activities, protein lipoylation and glycine metabolism, causing combined deficiency whereas some missense variants affect primarily one function only. The clinical features of the patients reflect the impact of the GCSH changes on any of the two functions analyzed. Our analysis illustrates the complex interplay of functional and clinical impact when pathogenic variants affect a multifunctional protein involved in two metabolic pathways and emphasizes the value of the functional assays to select the treatment and investigate new personalized options.

Pathogenic variants in GCSH encoding the moonlighting H-protein cause combined Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia and Lipoate Deficiency / Arribas-Carreira, Laura; Dallabona, Cristina; Swanson, Michael A; Farris, Joseph; Østergaard, Elsebet; Tsiakas, Konstantinos; Hempel, Maja; Aquaviva-Bourdain, Cecile; Koutsoukos, Stefanos; Stence, Nicholas V; Magistrati, Martina; Spector, Elaine B; Kronquist, Kathryn; Christensen, Mette; Karstensen, Helena G; Feichtinger, René G; Achleitner, Melanie T; Lawrence Merritt, J; Pérez, Belén; Ugarte, Magdalena; Grünewald, Stephanie; Riela, Anthony R; Julve, Natalia; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Haldar, Kasturi; Donnini, Claudia; Santer, René; Lund, Allan M; Mayr, Johannes A; Rodriguez-Pombo, Pilar; Van Hove, Johan L K. - In: HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS. - ISSN 0964-6906. - 32:6(2023), pp. 917-933. [10.1093/hmg/ddac246]

Pathogenic variants in GCSH encoding the moonlighting H-protein cause combined Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia and Lipoate Deficiency

Dallabona, Cristina;Magistrati, Martina;Donnini, Claudia;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Maintaining protein lipoylation is vital for cell metabolism. The H-protein encoded by GCSH has a dual role in protein lipoylation required for bioenergetic enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and in the one-carbon metabolism through its involvement in glycine cleavage enzyme system, intersecting two vital roles for cell survival. Here we report six patients with biallelic pathogenic variants in GCSH and a broad clinical spectrum ranging from neonatal fatal glycine encephalopathy to an attenuated phenotype of developmental delay, behavioral problems, limited epilepsy, and variable movement problems. The mutational spectrum includes one insertion c.293-2_293-1insT, one deletion c.122_(228 + 1_229-1) del, one duplication of exons 4 and 5, one nonsense variant p.Gln76*and four missense p.His57Arg, p.Pro115Leu, and p.Thr148Pro and the previously described p.Met1?. Via functional studies in patient's fibroblasts, molecular modelling, expression analysis in GCSH knock-down COS7 cells and yeast, and in vitro protein studies, we demonstrate for the first time that most variants identified in our cohort produced a hypomorphic effect on both mitochondrial activities, protein lipoylation and glycine metabolism, causing combined deficiency whereas some missense variants affect primarily one function only. The clinical features of the patients reflect the impact of the GCSH changes on any of the two functions analyzed. Our analysis illustrates the complex interplay of functional and clinical impact when pathogenic variants affect a multifunctional protein involved in two metabolic pathways and emphasizes the value of the functional assays to select the treatment and investigate new personalized options.
2023
Pathogenic variants in GCSH encoding the moonlighting H-protein cause combined Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia and Lipoate Deficiency / Arribas-Carreira, Laura; Dallabona, Cristina; Swanson, Michael A; Farris, Joseph; Østergaard, Elsebet; Tsiakas, Konstantinos; Hempel, Maja; Aquaviva-Bourdain, Cecile; Koutsoukos, Stefanos; Stence, Nicholas V; Magistrati, Martina; Spector, Elaine B; Kronquist, Kathryn; Christensen, Mette; Karstensen, Helena G; Feichtinger, René G; Achleitner, Melanie T; Lawrence Merritt, J; Pérez, Belén; Ugarte, Magdalena; Grünewald, Stephanie; Riela, Anthony R; Julve, Natalia; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Haldar, Kasturi; Donnini, Claudia; Santer, René; Lund, Allan M; Mayr, Johannes A; Rodriguez-Pombo, Pilar; Van Hove, Johan L K. - In: HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS. - ISSN 0964-6906. - 32:6(2023), pp. 917-933. [10.1093/hmg/ddac246]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2933560
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