Background: Gut microbial anaerobic fermentation produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are important substrates for energy metabolism and anabolic processes in mammals. SCFA can regulate the inflammatory response and increase the intestinal barrier integrity by enhancing the tight junction protein (TJp) functions, which prevent the passage of antigens through the paracellular space. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro supplementation with SCFA (acetate, propionate, butyrate, and lactate) at different concentrations on viability, nitric oxide (NO) release (oxidative stress parameter) in cell culture supernatants, and gene expression of TJp (occludin, zonula occludens-1, and claudin-4) and pro-inflammatory pathway-related mediators (β-defensin 1, TNF-α, and NF-κB) in intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2). Results: The SCFA tested showed significant effects on IPEC-J2, which proved to be dependent on the type and specific concentration of the fatty acid. Acetate stimulated cell viability and NO production in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05), and specifically, 5 mM acetate activated the barrier response through claudin-4, and immunity through β-defensin 1 (P < 0.05). The same effect on these parameters was shown by propionate supplementation, especially at 1 mM (P < 0.05). Contrarily, lactate and butyrate showed different effects compared to acetate and propionate, as they did not stimulate an increase of cell viability and regulated barrier integrity through zonula occludens-1 and occludin, especially at 30 mM and 0.5 mM, respectively (P < 0.05). Upon supplementation with SCFA, the increase of NO release at low levels proved not to have detrimental effects on IPEC-J2 proliferation/survival, and in the case of acetate and propionate, such levels were associated with beneficial effects. Furthermore, the results showed that SCFA supplementation induced β-defensin 1 (P < 0.05) that, in turn, may have been involved in the inhibition of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expression (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that the supplementation with specific SCFA in IPEC-J2 can significantly modulate the process of barrier protection, and that particularly acetate and propionate sustain cell viability, low oxidative stress activity and intestinal barrier function.

Effects of different short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on gene expression of proteins involved in barrier function in IPEC-J2 / Saleri, R.; Borghetti, P.; Ravanetti, F.; Cavalli, V.; Ferrari, L.; De Angelis, E.; Andrani, M.; Martelli, P.. - In: PORCINE HEALTH MANAGEMENT. - ISSN 2055-5660. - 8:1(2022). [10.1186/s40813-022-00264-z]

Effects of different short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on gene expression of proteins involved in barrier function in IPEC-J2

Saleri R.;Borghetti P.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Ravanetti F.;Cavalli V.;Ferrari L.
Formal Analysis
;
De Angelis E.
Methodology
;
Andrani M.;Martelli P.
Supervision
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Gut microbial anaerobic fermentation produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are important substrates for energy metabolism and anabolic processes in mammals. SCFA can regulate the inflammatory response and increase the intestinal barrier integrity by enhancing the tight junction protein (TJp) functions, which prevent the passage of antigens through the paracellular space. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro supplementation with SCFA (acetate, propionate, butyrate, and lactate) at different concentrations on viability, nitric oxide (NO) release (oxidative stress parameter) in cell culture supernatants, and gene expression of TJp (occludin, zonula occludens-1, and claudin-4) and pro-inflammatory pathway-related mediators (β-defensin 1, TNF-α, and NF-κB) in intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2). Results: The SCFA tested showed significant effects on IPEC-J2, which proved to be dependent on the type and specific concentration of the fatty acid. Acetate stimulated cell viability and NO production in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05), and specifically, 5 mM acetate activated the barrier response through claudin-4, and immunity through β-defensin 1 (P < 0.05). The same effect on these parameters was shown by propionate supplementation, especially at 1 mM (P < 0.05). Contrarily, lactate and butyrate showed different effects compared to acetate and propionate, as they did not stimulate an increase of cell viability and regulated barrier integrity through zonula occludens-1 and occludin, especially at 30 mM and 0.5 mM, respectively (P < 0.05). Upon supplementation with SCFA, the increase of NO release at low levels proved not to have detrimental effects on IPEC-J2 proliferation/survival, and in the case of acetate and propionate, such levels were associated with beneficial effects. Furthermore, the results showed that SCFA supplementation induced β-defensin 1 (P < 0.05) that, in turn, may have been involved in the inhibition of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expression (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that the supplementation with specific SCFA in IPEC-J2 can significantly modulate the process of barrier protection, and that particularly acetate and propionate sustain cell viability, low oxidative stress activity and intestinal barrier function.
2022
Effects of different short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on gene expression of proteins involved in barrier function in IPEC-J2 / Saleri, R.; Borghetti, P.; Ravanetti, F.; Cavalli, V.; Ferrari, L.; De Angelis, E.; Andrani, M.; Martelli, P.. - In: PORCINE HEALTH MANAGEMENT. - ISSN 2055-5660. - 8:1(2022). [10.1186/s40813-022-00264-z]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2932264
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