Laser-Directed Energy Deposition (L-DED) is an Additive Manufacturing process in which focused thermal energy is used to fuse powder feedstock. The scientific literature concerning L-DED and cost estimation is not as comprehensive as Laser-powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF). Indeed, a robust and reliable cost model (in terms of the number of materials, machines, and process parameters managed) is not available. The paper aims to define an analytical cost model for L-DED, considering the material, machine, labour, consumables, energy and equipment cost items. The model seeks to evaluate the production cost from the machine setup to the removal of the part. Post-processing steps are not included. The cost model is based on a scientific review of journal papers, handbooks and datasheets from industrial partners. The cost drivers for this model are the overall 3-dimensions of the part, volume, material, accuracy and number of components in the build plate. The meaningful process parameters are the layer thickness, melt pool width and overlap, powder efficiency, laser power, linear energy density, scanning speed, and machine dimensions. The developed cost model was tested on two products: a heat exchanger and a landing gear analyzed in previous works. The comparison led to a deviation of about 10% for the manufacturing cost and printing time.
An Analytical Cost Model for Laser-Directed Energy Deposition (L-DED) / Mandolini, M.; Sartini, M.; Favi, C.; Germani, M.. - (2023), pp. 993-1004. ((Intervento presentato al convegno International Joint Conference on Mechanics, Design Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing, JCM 2022 tenutosi a ita nel 2022 [10.1007/978-3-031-15928-2_87].