Transaminases play key roles in central metabolism, transferring the amino group from a donor substrate to an acceptor. These enzymes can often act, with low efficiency, on compounds different from the preferred substrates. To understand what might have shaped the substrate specificity of this class of enzymes, we examined the reactivity of six human cytosolic transaminases towards amino acids whose main degradative pathways do not include any transamination. We also tested whether sugars and sugar phosphates could serve as alternative amino group acceptors for these cytosolic enzymes. Each of the six aminotransferases reacted appreciably with at least three of the alternative amino acid substrates in vitro, albeit at usually feeble rates. Reactions with L-Thr, L-Arg, L-Lys and L-Asn were consistently very slow-a bias explained in part by the structural differences between these amino acids and the preferred substrates of the transaminases. On the other hand, L-His and L-Trp reacted more efficiently, particularly with GTK (glutamine transaminase K; also known as KYAT1). This points towards a role of GTK in the salvage of L-Trp (in cooperation with ω-amidase and possibly with the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, MDH1, which efficiently reduced the product of L-Trp transamination). Finally, the transaminases were extremely ineffective at utilizing sugars and sugar derivatives, with the exception of the glycolytic intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate, which was slowly but appreciably transaminated by some of the enzymes to yield serinol phosphate. Evidence for the formation of this compound in a human cell line was also obtained. We discuss the biological and evolutionary implications of our results.

Human cytosolic transaminases: side activities and patterns of discrimination towards physiologically available alternative substrates / Caligiore, Francesco; Zangelmi, Erika; Vetro, Carola; Kentache, Takfarinas; Dewulf, Joseph P; Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Van Schaftingen, Emile; Bommer, Guido; Peracchi, Alessio. - In: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES. - ISSN 1420-9071. - 79:8(2022). [10.1007/s00018-022-04439-3]

Human cytosolic transaminases: side activities and patterns of discrimination towards physiologically available alternative substrates

Caligiore, Francesco;Zangelmi, Erika;Peracchi, Alessio
2022-01-01

Abstract

Transaminases play key roles in central metabolism, transferring the amino group from a donor substrate to an acceptor. These enzymes can often act, with low efficiency, on compounds different from the preferred substrates. To understand what might have shaped the substrate specificity of this class of enzymes, we examined the reactivity of six human cytosolic transaminases towards amino acids whose main degradative pathways do not include any transamination. We also tested whether sugars and sugar phosphates could serve as alternative amino group acceptors for these cytosolic enzymes. Each of the six aminotransferases reacted appreciably with at least three of the alternative amino acid substrates in vitro, albeit at usually feeble rates. Reactions with L-Thr, L-Arg, L-Lys and L-Asn were consistently very slow-a bias explained in part by the structural differences between these amino acids and the preferred substrates of the transaminases. On the other hand, L-His and L-Trp reacted more efficiently, particularly with GTK (glutamine transaminase K; also known as KYAT1). This points towards a role of GTK in the salvage of L-Trp (in cooperation with ω-amidase and possibly with the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, MDH1, which efficiently reduced the product of L-Trp transamination). Finally, the transaminases were extremely ineffective at utilizing sugars and sugar derivatives, with the exception of the glycolytic intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate, which was slowly but appreciably transaminated by some of the enzymes to yield serinol phosphate. Evidence for the formation of this compound in a human cell line was also obtained. We discuss the biological and evolutionary implications of our results.
2022
Human cytosolic transaminases: side activities and patterns of discrimination towards physiologically available alternative substrates / Caligiore, Francesco; Zangelmi, Erika; Vetro, Carola; Kentache, Takfarinas; Dewulf, Joseph P; Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Van Schaftingen, Emile; Bommer, Guido; Peracchi, Alessio. - In: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR LIFE SCIENCES. - ISSN 1420-9071. - 79:8(2022). [10.1007/s00018-022-04439-3]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2928331
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