Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged shallow water equations (SWE) are widely used to model unsteady free surface flows, such as flooding processes, including those due to dam-break or levee breach. However, the basic hypothesis of small bottom slopes may be far from satisfied in certain practical circumstances, both locally at geometric singularities and even in wide portions of the floodable area, such as in mountain regions. In these cases, the classic 2D SWE might provide inaccurate results, and the steep-slope shallow water equations (SSSWE), in which the restriction of small bottom slopes is relaxed, are a valid alternative modeling option. However, different 2D formulations of this set of equations can be found in the geophysical flow literature, in both global horizontally-oriented and local bottom-oriented coordinate systems. In this paper, a new SSSWE model is presented in which water depth is defined along the vertical direction and flow velocity is assumed parallel to the bottom surface. This choice of the dependent variables combines the advantages of considering the flow velocity parallel to the bottom, as can be expected in gradually varied shallow flow, and handling vertical water depths consistent with elevation data, usually available as digital terrain models. The pressure distribution is assumed linear along the vertical direction and flow curvature effects are neglected. A new formulation of the 2D depth-averaged SSSWE is derived, in which the two dynamic equations represent momentum balances along two spatial directions parallel to the bottom, whose horizontal projections are parallel to two fixed orthogonal coordinate directions. The analysis of the mathematical properties of the new SSSWE equations shows that they are strictly hyperbolic for wet bed conditions and reduce to the conventional 2D SWE when bottom slopes are small. Finally, it is shown that the SSSWE predict a slower flow compared with the conventional SWE in the theoretical case of a 1D dam-break on a frictionless channel with fixed slope. The capabilities of the proposed model are demonstrated in a companion paper on the basis of numerical and experimental tests.

New formulation of the two-dimensional steep-slope shallow water equations. Part I: Theory and analysis / Maranzoni, Andrea; Tomirotti, Massimo. - In: ADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCES. - ISSN 0309-1708. - 166:(2022). [10.1016/j.advwatres.2022.104255]

New formulation of the two-dimensional steep-slope shallow water equations. Part I: Theory and analysis

Maranzoni, Andrea
;
2022

Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged shallow water equations (SWE) are widely used to model unsteady free surface flows, such as flooding processes, including those due to dam-break or levee breach. However, the basic hypothesis of small bottom slopes may be far from satisfied in certain practical circumstances, both locally at geometric singularities and even in wide portions of the floodable area, such as in mountain regions. In these cases, the classic 2D SWE might provide inaccurate results, and the steep-slope shallow water equations (SSSWE), in which the restriction of small bottom slopes is relaxed, are a valid alternative modeling option. However, different 2D formulations of this set of equations can be found in the geophysical flow literature, in both global horizontally-oriented and local bottom-oriented coordinate systems. In this paper, a new SSSWE model is presented in which water depth is defined along the vertical direction and flow velocity is assumed parallel to the bottom surface. This choice of the dependent variables combines the advantages of considering the flow velocity parallel to the bottom, as can be expected in gradually varied shallow flow, and handling vertical water depths consistent with elevation data, usually available as digital terrain models. The pressure distribution is assumed linear along the vertical direction and flow curvature effects are neglected. A new formulation of the 2D depth-averaged SSSWE is derived, in which the two dynamic equations represent momentum balances along two spatial directions parallel to the bottom, whose horizontal projections are parallel to two fixed orthogonal coordinate directions. The analysis of the mathematical properties of the new SSSWE equations shows that they are strictly hyperbolic for wet bed conditions and reduce to the conventional 2D SWE when bottom slopes are small. Finally, it is shown that the SSSWE predict a slower flow compared with the conventional SWE in the theoretical case of a 1D dam-break on a frictionless channel with fixed slope. The capabilities of the proposed model are demonstrated in a companion paper on the basis of numerical and experimental tests.
New formulation of the two-dimensional steep-slope shallow water equations. Part I: Theory and analysis / Maranzoni, Andrea; Tomirotti, Massimo. - In: ADVANCES IN WATER RESOURCES. - ISSN 0309-1708. - 166:(2022). [10.1016/j.advwatres.2022.104255]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11381/2927512
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