BACKGROUND: Rectal cancer in adolescents and young adults (age ≤39) is increasing. Early diagnosis is a challenge in this subset of patients. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the presentation pattern and outcomes of sporadic rectal cancer in adolescents and young adults. DESIGN: This is a retrospective study. SETTING: This study was conducted at 3 European tertiary centers. PATIENTS: Data on adolescents and young adults operated on for sporadic rectal cancer (January 2008 through October 2019) were analyzed. To compare outcomes, adolescents and young adults were matched to a group of patients aged ≥40 operated on during the same period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes measured were clinical presentation and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: Sporadic rectal cancers occurred in 101 adolescents and young adults (2.4%; mean age, 33.5; range, 18-39); 51.5% were male, and a smoking habit was reported by 17.8% of patients. The rate of a family history for colorectal cancer was 25.7%, and of these patients, 24.7% were obese. Diagnosis based on symptoms was reported in 92.1% patients, and the mean time from first symptoms to diagnosis was 13.7 months. The most common symptom at diagnosis was rectal bleeding (68.8%), and 12% and 34% of the adolescents and young adults presented with locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis. Consequently, 68.3% and 62.4% adolescents and young adults received neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments. The rate of complete pathological response was 24.1%; whereas 38.6% patients had stage IV disease, and 93.1% were microsatellite stable. At a mean follow-up of 5 years, no difference in cancer-specific survival, but a lower disease-free survival was reported in adolescents and young adults (p < 0.0001) vs the matched group. Adolescents and young adults with stages I to II disease had shorter cancer-specific survival and disease-free survival (p = 0.006; p < 0.0001); with stage III disease, they had a shorter disease-free survival (p = 0.01). LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by its observational, retrospective design. CONCLUSIONS: The significantly delayed diagnosis in adolescents and young adults may have contributed to the advanced disease at presentation and lower disease-free survival, even at earlier stages, suggesting a higher metastatic potential than in older patients. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B537.

Rectal Cancer in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients: Pattern of Clinical Presentation and Case-Matched Comparison of Outcomes / Foppa, C.; Francesca Bertuzzi, A.; Cianchi, F.; Carvello, M.; Maroli, A.; Wolthuis, A. M.; Rimassa, L.; Laghi, L.; Montorsi, M.; D'Hoore, A. J. L.; Spinelli, A.. - In: DISEASES OF THE COLON & RECTUM. - ISSN 0012-3706. - (2021), pp. 1064-1073. [10.1097/DCR.0000000000002022]

Rectal Cancer in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients: Pattern of Clinical Presentation and Case-Matched Comparison of Outcomes

Maroli A.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Laghi L.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2021-01-01

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Rectal cancer in adolescents and young adults (age ≤39) is increasing. Early diagnosis is a challenge in this subset of patients. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the presentation pattern and outcomes of sporadic rectal cancer in adolescents and young adults. DESIGN: This is a retrospective study. SETTING: This study was conducted at 3 European tertiary centers. PATIENTS: Data on adolescents and young adults operated on for sporadic rectal cancer (January 2008 through October 2019) were analyzed. To compare outcomes, adolescents and young adults were matched to a group of patients aged ≥40 operated on during the same period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes measured were clinical presentation and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: Sporadic rectal cancers occurred in 101 adolescents and young adults (2.4%; mean age, 33.5; range, 18-39); 51.5% were male, and a smoking habit was reported by 17.8% of patients. The rate of a family history for colorectal cancer was 25.7%, and of these patients, 24.7% were obese. Diagnosis based on symptoms was reported in 92.1% patients, and the mean time from first symptoms to diagnosis was 13.7 months. The most common symptom at diagnosis was rectal bleeding (68.8%), and 12% and 34% of the adolescents and young adults presented with locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis. Consequently, 68.3% and 62.4% adolescents and young adults received neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments. The rate of complete pathological response was 24.1%; whereas 38.6% patients had stage IV disease, and 93.1% were microsatellite stable. At a mean follow-up of 5 years, no difference in cancer-specific survival, but a lower disease-free survival was reported in adolescents and young adults (p < 0.0001) vs the matched group. Adolescents and young adults with stages I to II disease had shorter cancer-specific survival and disease-free survival (p = 0.006; p < 0.0001); with stage III disease, they had a shorter disease-free survival (p = 0.01). LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by its observational, retrospective design. CONCLUSIONS: The significantly delayed diagnosis in adolescents and young adults may have contributed to the advanced disease at presentation and lower disease-free survival, even at earlier stages, suggesting a higher metastatic potential than in older patients. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B537.
2021
Rectal Cancer in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients: Pattern of Clinical Presentation and Case-Matched Comparison of Outcomes / Foppa, C.; Francesca Bertuzzi, A.; Cianchi, F.; Carvello, M.; Maroli, A.; Wolthuis, A. M.; Rimassa, L.; Laghi, L.; Montorsi, M.; D'Hoore, A. J. L.; Spinelli, A.. - In: DISEASES OF THE COLON & RECTUM. - ISSN 0012-3706. - (2021), pp. 1064-1073. [10.1097/DCR.0000000000002022]
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2926613
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 9
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 11
social impact