Objectives: We assessed the relationship between exposure to air pollutants and mechanisms of coronary instability evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Background: Air pollution is an emerging key player in determining the residual risk of coronary events. However, pathophysiological mechanisms linking air pollution and coronary events have been not adequately investigated. Methods: Patients with ACS undergoing OCT imaging were retrospectively selected. Mechanism of culprit lesion instability was classified as plaque rupture (PR) or intact fibrous cap (IFC) by OCT, and the presence of macrophage infiltrates (MØI) and thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) at the culprit site was also assessed. Based on each case's home address, exposure to several pollutants was evaluated, including particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), PM10, and carbon monoxide (CO). Only patients with >2 years of available data on air pollution exposure prior to ACS were enrolled. Results: We included 126 patients (median age: 67.0 years of age; IQR: 55.5-76.0; 97 male patients [77.0%]). Sixty-six patients (52.4%) had PR as the mechanism of plaque instability. Patients with PR were exposed to significantly higher PM2.5 levels than to IFC, and PM2.5 was independently associated with PR (odds ratio: 1.194; 95% CI: 1.036 to 1.377; P = 0.015). Moreover, exposure to higher levels of PM2.5 was independently associated with the presence of TCFA and of MØI at the culprit site. Interestingly, PM2.5, PM10, and CO levels were positively and significantly correlated with serum levels of C-reactive protein. Conclusions: We provide novel insights into the missing link between air pollution and increased risk of coronary events. In particular, exposure to higher concentrations of air pollutants is associated with the presence of vulnerable plaque features and with plaque rupture as a mechanism of coronary instability. An enhanced systemic and plaque inflammatory activation may explain these findings.

Air Pollution and Coronary Plaque Vulnerability and Instability: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study / Montone, R. A.; Camilli, M.; Russo, M.; Termite, C.; La Vecchia, G.; Iannaccone, G.; Rinaldi, R.; Gurgoglione, F.; Del Buono, M. G.; Sanna, T.; Trani, C.; Liuzzo, G.; Crea, F.; Niccoli, G.. - In: JACC. CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING. - ISSN 1936-878X. - 15:2(2022), pp. 325-342. [10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.09.008]

Air Pollution and Coronary Plaque Vulnerability and Instability: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study

Gurgoglione F.;Niccoli G.
2022

Abstract

Objectives: We assessed the relationship between exposure to air pollutants and mechanisms of coronary instability evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Background: Air pollution is an emerging key player in determining the residual risk of coronary events. However, pathophysiological mechanisms linking air pollution and coronary events have been not adequately investigated. Methods: Patients with ACS undergoing OCT imaging were retrospectively selected. Mechanism of culprit lesion instability was classified as plaque rupture (PR) or intact fibrous cap (IFC) by OCT, and the presence of macrophage infiltrates (MØI) and thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) at the culprit site was also assessed. Based on each case's home address, exposure to several pollutants was evaluated, including particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), PM10, and carbon monoxide (CO). Only patients with >2 years of available data on air pollution exposure prior to ACS were enrolled. Results: We included 126 patients (median age: 67.0 years of age; IQR: 55.5-76.0; 97 male patients [77.0%]). Sixty-six patients (52.4%) had PR as the mechanism of plaque instability. Patients with PR were exposed to significantly higher PM2.5 levels than to IFC, and PM2.5 was independently associated with PR (odds ratio: 1.194; 95% CI: 1.036 to 1.377; P = 0.015). Moreover, exposure to higher levels of PM2.5 was independently associated with the presence of TCFA and of MØI at the culprit site. Interestingly, PM2.5, PM10, and CO levels were positively and significantly correlated with serum levels of C-reactive protein. Conclusions: We provide novel insights into the missing link between air pollution and increased risk of coronary events. In particular, exposure to higher concentrations of air pollutants is associated with the presence of vulnerable plaque features and with plaque rupture as a mechanism of coronary instability. An enhanced systemic and plaque inflammatory activation may explain these findings.
Air Pollution and Coronary Plaque Vulnerability and Instability: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study / Montone, R. A.; Camilli, M.; Russo, M.; Termite, C.; La Vecchia, G.; Iannaccone, G.; Rinaldi, R.; Gurgoglione, F.; Del Buono, M. G.; Sanna, T.; Trani, C.; Liuzzo, G.; Crea, F.; Niccoli, G.. - In: JACC. CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING. - ISSN 1936-878X. - 15:2(2022), pp. 325-342. [10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.09.008]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11381/2922354
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