Due to their marked larvicidal activity, macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are used for the prevention of heartworm disease ( Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs. They have also been shown to eliminate adult parasites after long-term administration, with a so-called “slow-kill” effect. In addition, recent studies have established that a combination of doxycycline, which eliminates the endosymbiont Wolbachia, and MLs has superior adulticide effects when compared to MLs alone. It has been hypothesized that the apparent synergism between doxycycline/MLs may be due to interaction with drug efflux transport proteins. The aim of the present study was to evaluate gene expression of several transport proteins in D. immitis adults treated in vitro either with doxycycline alone, ivermectin alone, moxidectin alone, or a combination of ivermectin or moxidectin with doxycycline for 12 h. Quantitative PCR analysis showed a sex-dependent response to treatments. In female worms, Dim-pgp-10, Dim-haf-1 and Dim-haf-5 were upregulated compared to controls with doxycycline alone and when combined with ivermectin. Moxidectin did not induce any changes in gene expression. In males, moxidectin administered alone induced a slight increase in Dim-pgp-10, Dim-pgp-11and Di-avr-14, while ivermectin in combination with doxycycline produced significant upregulation of the ML receptor Di-avr-14. These results suggest possible synergism between the two drug classes and different susceptibility of males vs. females to adulticide effects.

Transporter gene expression and Wolbachia quantification in adults of Dirofilaria immitis treated in vitro with ivermectin or moxidectin alone or in combination with doxycycline for 12 h / Chiarabazzocchi, ; Genchi, Marco; Chiaralucchetti, ; Cafiso, Alessandra; Ciuca, Lavinia; Mccall, John; Kramer, Laura Helen; Vismarra, Alice. - In: MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL PARASITOLOGY. - ISSN 0166-6851. - 249:May 2022(2022), p. 111475. [10.1016/j.molbiopara.2022.111475]

Transporter gene expression and Wolbachia quantification in adults of Dirofilaria immitis treated in vitro with ivermectin or moxidectin alone or in combination with doxycycline for 12 h

Marco Genchi;Laura Helen Kramer;Alice Vismarra
2022-01-01

Abstract

Due to their marked larvicidal activity, macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are used for the prevention of heartworm disease ( Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs. They have also been shown to eliminate adult parasites after long-term administration, with a so-called “slow-kill” effect. In addition, recent studies have established that a combination of doxycycline, which eliminates the endosymbiont Wolbachia, and MLs has superior adulticide effects when compared to MLs alone. It has been hypothesized that the apparent synergism between doxycycline/MLs may be due to interaction with drug efflux transport proteins. The aim of the present study was to evaluate gene expression of several transport proteins in D. immitis adults treated in vitro either with doxycycline alone, ivermectin alone, moxidectin alone, or a combination of ivermectin or moxidectin with doxycycline for 12 h. Quantitative PCR analysis showed a sex-dependent response to treatments. In female worms, Dim-pgp-10, Dim-haf-1 and Dim-haf-5 were upregulated compared to controls with doxycycline alone and when combined with ivermectin. Moxidectin did not induce any changes in gene expression. In males, moxidectin administered alone induced a slight increase in Dim-pgp-10, Dim-pgp-11and Di-avr-14, while ivermectin in combination with doxycycline produced significant upregulation of the ML receptor Di-avr-14. These results suggest possible synergism between the two drug classes and different susceptibility of males vs. females to adulticide effects.
Transporter gene expression and Wolbachia quantification in adults of Dirofilaria immitis treated in vitro with ivermectin or moxidectin alone or in combination with doxycycline for 12 h / Chiarabazzocchi, ; Genchi, Marco; Chiaralucchetti, ; Cafiso, Alessandra; Ciuca, Lavinia; Mccall, John; Kramer, Laura Helen; Vismarra, Alice. - In: MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL PARASITOLOGY. - ISSN 0166-6851. - 249:May 2022(2022), p. 111475. [10.1016/j.molbiopara.2022.111475]
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Pre-proof .pdf

embargo fino al 01/04/2023

Tipologia: Documento in Post-print
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 1.79 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.79 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2921054
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact