: The timing of umbilical cord and placental thrombosis in the third trimester intrauterine fetal death (TT-IUFD) may be fundamental for medico-legal purposes, when it undergoes medical litigation due to the absence of risk factors. Authors apply to human TT-IUFD cases a protocol, which includes histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the assessment of thrombi's chronology. A total of 35 thrombi of umbilical cord and/or placenta were assessed: 2 in umbilical artery, 6 in umbilical vein, 15 in insertion, 10 in chorionic vessels, 1 in fetal renal vein, 1 in fetal brachiocephalic vein. Thrombi's features were evaluated with hematoxylin-eosin, Picro-Mallory, Von Kossa, Perls, and immunohistochemistry for CD15, CD68, CD31, CD61, and Smooth Muscle Actin. The estimation of the age of the thrombi was established by applying neutrophils/macrophages ratio taking into consideration, according to literature, the presence of hemosiderophagi, calcium deposition, and angiogenesis. To estimate an approximate age of fresh thrombi (< 1 day), a non-linear regression model was tested. Results were compared to maternal risk factors, fetal time of death estimated at autopsy, mechanism, and cause of death. Our study confirms that the maternal risk factors for fetal intrauterine death and the pathologies of the cord, followed by those of the placental parenchyma, are the conditions that are most frequently associated with the presence of thrombi. Results obtained with histological stainings document that the neutrophile/macrophage ratio is a useful tool for determining placental thrombi's age. Age estimation of thrombi on the first day is very challenging; therefore, the study presented suggests the N/M ratio as a parameter to be used, together with others, i.e., hemosiderophagi, calcium deposition, and angiogenesis, for thrombi's age determination, and hypothesizes that its usefulness regards particularly the first days when all other parameters are negative.

Third trimester intrauterine fetal death: proposal for the assessment of the chronology of umbilical cord and placental thrombosis / Bonasoni, Maria Paola; Muciaccia, Barbara; Pelligra, Caterina B; Goldoni, Matteo; Cecchi, Rossana. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 0937-9827. - (2022). [10.1007/s00414-022-02784-3]

Third trimester intrauterine fetal death: proposal for the assessment of the chronology of umbilical cord and placental thrombosis

Pelligra, Caterina B;Goldoni, Matteo;Cecchi, Rossana
2022

Abstract

: The timing of umbilical cord and placental thrombosis in the third trimester intrauterine fetal death (TT-IUFD) may be fundamental for medico-legal purposes, when it undergoes medical litigation due to the absence of risk factors. Authors apply to human TT-IUFD cases a protocol, which includes histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the assessment of thrombi's chronology. A total of 35 thrombi of umbilical cord and/or placenta were assessed: 2 in umbilical artery, 6 in umbilical vein, 15 in insertion, 10 in chorionic vessels, 1 in fetal renal vein, 1 in fetal brachiocephalic vein. Thrombi's features were evaluated with hematoxylin-eosin, Picro-Mallory, Von Kossa, Perls, and immunohistochemistry for CD15, CD68, CD31, CD61, and Smooth Muscle Actin. The estimation of the age of the thrombi was established by applying neutrophils/macrophages ratio taking into consideration, according to literature, the presence of hemosiderophagi, calcium deposition, and angiogenesis. To estimate an approximate age of fresh thrombi (< 1 day), a non-linear regression model was tested. Results were compared to maternal risk factors, fetal time of death estimated at autopsy, mechanism, and cause of death. Our study confirms that the maternal risk factors for fetal intrauterine death and the pathologies of the cord, followed by those of the placental parenchyma, are the conditions that are most frequently associated with the presence of thrombi. Results obtained with histological stainings document that the neutrophile/macrophage ratio is a useful tool for determining placental thrombi's age. Age estimation of thrombi on the first day is very challenging; therefore, the study presented suggests the N/M ratio as a parameter to be used, together with others, i.e., hemosiderophagi, calcium deposition, and angiogenesis, for thrombi's age determination, and hypothesizes that its usefulness regards particularly the first days when all other parameters are negative.
Third trimester intrauterine fetal death: proposal for the assessment of the chronology of umbilical cord and placental thrombosis / Bonasoni, Maria Paola; Muciaccia, Barbara; Pelligra, Caterina B; Goldoni, Matteo; Cecchi, Rossana. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 0937-9827. - (2022). [10.1007/s00414-022-02784-3]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11381/2916321
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