Mechanisms underlying the resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) blasts to L-asparaginase are still incompletely known. Here we demonstrate that human primary bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) successfully adapt to L-asparaginase and markedly protect leukemic blasts from the enzyme-dependent cytotoxicity through an amino acid tradeoff. ALL blasts synthesize and secrete glutamine, thus increasing extracellular glutamine availability for stromal cells. In turn, MSCs use glutamine, either synthesized through glutamine synthetase (GS) or imported, to produce asparagine, which is then extruded to sustain asparagine-auxotroph leukemic cells. GS inhibition prevents mesenchymal cells adaptation to L-asparaginase, lowers glutamine secretion by ALL blasts, and markedly hinders the protection exerted by MSCs on leukemic cells. The pro-survival amino acid exchange is hindered by the inhibition or silencing of the asparagine efflux transporter SNAT5, which is induced in mesenchymal cells by ALL blasts. Consistently, primary MSCs from ALL patients express higher levels of SNAT5 (P <.05), secrete more asparagine (P <.05), and protect leukemic blasts (P <.05) better than MSCs isolated from healthy donors. In conclusion, ALL blasts arrange a pro-leukemic amino acid trade-off with bone marrow mesenchymal cells, which depends on GS and SNAT5 and promotes leukemic cell survival during L-asparaginase treatment.

ALL blasts drive primary mesenchymal stromal cells to increase asparagine availability during asparaginase treatment / Chiu, M.; Taurino, G.; Dander, E.; Bardelli, D.; Fallati, A.; Andreoli, R.; Bianchi, M. G.; Carubbi, C.; Pozzi, G.; Galuppo, L.; Mirandola, P.; Rizzari, C.; Tardito, S.; Biondi, A.; D'Amico, G.; Bussolati, O.. - In: BLOOD ADVANCES. - ISSN 2473-9537. - 5:23(2021), pp. 5164-5178. [10.1182/bloodadvances.2020004041]

ALL blasts drive primary mesenchymal stromal cells to increase asparagine availability during asparaginase treatment

Chiu M.;Taurino G.;Andreoli R.;Bianchi M. G.;Carubbi C.;Pozzi G.;Mirandola P.;Bussolati O.
2021

Abstract

Mechanisms underlying the resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) blasts to L-asparaginase are still incompletely known. Here we demonstrate that human primary bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) successfully adapt to L-asparaginase and markedly protect leukemic blasts from the enzyme-dependent cytotoxicity through an amino acid tradeoff. ALL blasts synthesize and secrete glutamine, thus increasing extracellular glutamine availability for stromal cells. In turn, MSCs use glutamine, either synthesized through glutamine synthetase (GS) or imported, to produce asparagine, which is then extruded to sustain asparagine-auxotroph leukemic cells. GS inhibition prevents mesenchymal cells adaptation to L-asparaginase, lowers glutamine secretion by ALL blasts, and markedly hinders the protection exerted by MSCs on leukemic cells. The pro-survival amino acid exchange is hindered by the inhibition or silencing of the asparagine efflux transporter SNAT5, which is induced in mesenchymal cells by ALL blasts. Consistently, primary MSCs from ALL patients express higher levels of SNAT5 (P <.05), secrete more asparagine (P <.05), and protect leukemic blasts (P <.05) better than MSCs isolated from healthy donors. In conclusion, ALL blasts arrange a pro-leukemic amino acid trade-off with bone marrow mesenchymal cells, which depends on GS and SNAT5 and promotes leukemic cell survival during L-asparaginase treatment.
ALL blasts drive primary mesenchymal stromal cells to increase asparagine availability during asparaginase treatment / Chiu, M.; Taurino, G.; Dander, E.; Bardelli, D.; Fallati, A.; Andreoli, R.; Bianchi, M. G.; Carubbi, C.; Pozzi, G.; Galuppo, L.; Mirandola, P.; Rizzari, C.; Tardito, S.; Biondi, A.; D'Amico, G.; Bussolati, O.. - In: BLOOD ADVANCES. - ISSN 2473-9537. - 5:23(2021), pp. 5164-5178. [10.1182/bloodadvances.2020004041]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11381/2913894
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