This study evaluates the effects of toxic metal pollution in the highly contaminated Sarno River (South Italy), by using the aquatic moss Leptodictyum riparium in bags at 3 representative sites of the river. Biological effects were assessed by metal bioaccumulation, ultrastructural changes, oxidative stress, as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, as well as Heat Shock Proteins 70 (HSP70s) induction. The results showed that L. riparium is a valuable bioindicator for toxic metal pollution of water ecosystem, accumulating different amounts of toxic metals from the aquatic environment. Toxic metal pollution caused severe ultrastructural damage, as well as increased ROS production and induction of GST and HSP70s, in the samples exposed at the polluted sites. To assess the role and the effect of toxic metals on L. riparium, were also cultured in vitro with Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn at the same concentrations as measured at the 3 sites. Ultrastructure, ROS, GST, and HSP70s resulted severely affected by toxic metals. Based on our findings, we confirm L. riparium as a model organism in freshwater biomonitoring surveys, and GST and HSP70s as promising biomarkers of metal toxicity.
In-field and in-vitro study of the moss Leptodictyum riparium as bioindicator of toxic metal pollution in the aquatic environment: Ultrastructural damage, oxidative stress and HSP70 induction / Esposito, Sergio; Loppi, Stefano; Monaci, Fabrizio; Paoli, Luca; Vannini, Andrea; Sorbo, Sergio; Maresca, Viviana; Fusaro, Lina; Karam, Elham Asadi; Lentini, Marco; De Lillo, Alessia; Conte, Barbara; Cianciullo, Piergiorgio; Basile, Adriana. - In: PLOS ONE. - ISSN 1932-6203. - 13:4(2018). [10.1371/journal.pone.0195717]
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