OBJECTIVES: Surgery for vascular anomalies can occasionally fail to relieve symptoms, especially when severe tracheobronchial malacia persists. We studied outcomes in children who underwent airway stenting for severe post-surgical airway malacia and tested known clinical and surgical prognostic factors. METHODS: Among 257 children evaluated for tracheobronchial vascular compression, we reviewed the clinical charts for the 59 patients (23%) who underwent surgery. After surgery, children in whom severe malacia and respiratory symptoms persisted underwent airway stenting. RESULTS: Among the 59 patients (boys: 58.1%, median age: 6.4 months, age range: 0.1-182.8 months), 79.7% had major comorbidities, 39% additional upper airway anomalies and 15.2% abnormal bronchial anatomy. Diagnostic imaging identified seven vascular anomalies: innominate artery compression 27.1%, left bronchial compression from the descending aorta and left pulmonary artery 20.3%, lesions associated with right aortic arch 22.0%, double aortic arch 13.6%, bovine arch type 10.2%, aberrant right subclavian artery 5.1% and pulmonary artery sling 1.7%. For severe residual malacia and severe persistent respiratory symptoms, 20 patients (33.9%) had silicone or metallic stents inserted. The most frequent indication for stenting was double aortic arch (P = 0.02 by chi-square test). A clinical prognostic factor for permanent stenting was left bronchial compression from the descending aorta and left pulmonary artery [odds ratio (OR): 14.667, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.881-74.659], particularly if associated with congenital heart disease (OR: 30.00, 95% CI: 4.349- 206.927). All silicone stents but one were successfully removed; metallic uncovered stents were patent and completely re-epithelialized. CONCLUSIONS: When surgery leaves severe airway obstruction and respiratory symptoms unchanged, children with tracheobronchial malacia can safely undergo airway stenting.
Residual tracheobronchial malacia after surgery for vascular compression in children: Treatment with stenting / Serio, P.; Nenna, R.; Fainardi, V.; Grisotto, L.; Biggeri, A.; Leone, R.; Arcieri, L.; Di Maurizio, M.; Colosimo, D.; Baggi, R.; Murzi, B.; Mirabile, L.; Midulla, F.. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CARDIO-THORACIC SURGERY. - ISSN 1010-7940. - 51:2(2017), pp. 211-217. [10.1093/ejcts/ezw299]
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