Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been emerging at an alarming rate over the last few years. It has been estimated that about 3% of all pediatric TB is MDR, meaning about 30,000 cases each year. Although most children with MDR-TB can be successfully treated, up to five years ago effective treatment was associated with a high incidence of severe adverse effects and patients with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB had limited treatment options and no standard regimen. The main objective of this manuscript is to discuss our present knowledge of the management of MDR-and XDR-TB in children, focusing on the characteristics and available evidence on the use of two promising new drugs: bedaquiline and delamanid. PubMed was used to search for all of the studies published up to November 2020 using key words such as “bedaquiline” and “delamanid” and “children” and “multidrug-resistant tuberculosis” and “extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis”. The search was limited to articles published in English and providing evidence-based data. Although data on pediatric population are limited and more studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of bedaquiline and delamanid, their use in children with MDR-TB/XDR-TB appears to have good tolerability and efficacy. However, more evidence on these new anti-TB drugs is needed to better guide their use in children in order to design effective shorter regimens and reduce adverse effects, drug interactions, and therapeutic failure.
Treatment of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in children: The role of bedaquiline and delamanid / Pecora, F.; Dal Canto, G.; Veronese, P.; Esposito, S.. - In: MICROORGANISMS. - ISSN 2076-2607. - 9:5(2021), p. 1074.1074. [10.3390/microorganisms9051074]
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